Merry we meet  -  Merry we meet  -  Merry we meet


Welcome to





Animals and Witchcraft

(The Witches Familiar)


Written and compiled by George Knowles

 “Suspicions amongst thoughts are like bats amongst birds, they ever fly by twilight

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) 

Of all the creatures associated with the night, perhaps the most misaligned and misunderstood is the Bat.  Fictional characterisations in modern culture, in movies and on TV, have given the bat an evil and sinister reputation, but such could not be further from the truth.  In Tonga and ancient Babylonia bats were considered physical manifestations of the Souls of the Dead.  In China and Poland they were symbols of Happiness and Long life, and to the ancient Mayans they symbolized Transformation and Rebirth.  So what better time than this Samhain to consider the characteristics and teachings of the Bat? 

Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera of which there are 17 families divided into 2 suborders – the larger Megabats and the smaller Microbats.  Only one of these families includes Megabats (of which there are more than 150 species); the other 16 families are all Microbats containing another 850 species or more.  Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, and are so prolific that the two orders together make up nearly one-quarter of the world’s mammal population. 

Bats are the most widely distributed group of mammals in the world.  The ability of flight has enabled them to disperse and take up residence in most all countries, except for the Arctic, the Antarctic and a few isolated oceanic islands.  Bats are more prolific in warmer countries however, such like Indonesia, home to about 175 species of bats, Venezuela to about 154 and Mexico to some 137.  Central and South America is thought to be home to almost one third of the world’s total bat population.  Sadly, as widely distributed as bats are, some species have drastically declined and many are now endangered. 

The Megabat family includes some of the largest bats known; one such is the Giant Flying Fox of Africa, India and Malaysia (so called because of its fox-like face).  The biggest Flying Foxes are found in Java and achieve a wingspan of 1.8 m (6 ft), a body length of 55 cm (22 in) and weigh up to 1.5 kg (3.3 lb).  Flying Foxes are also known as Fruit Bats, because their main diet consists of fruit and flowers.  Of the Microbat families, the smallest bat is the Kitti’s Hog-nosed bat (also called the Bumblebee bat), which is found only along the River Kwai in western Thailand.  It measures only 3 cm (1 in) long and weighs about 2 g (0.07 oz), making it one of the smallest mammals living today. 


Giant Flying Fox  -  Kitti’s Hog-nosed bat 

Aside from their size, Megabats and Microbats are different in many ways.  Megabats have large eyes and mostly fox-like faces; while Microbats have small eyes and often elaborate facial structures.  There is a myth that all bats are blind, but this is not true.  Megabats see relatively well and rely on smell and vision to find their food, while Microbats have poorer eyesight and use a unique method of echolocation to orient and detect their food and prey.  Echolocation is a high-frequency pulsing sound emitted by the bat that bounces back to its ears from surrounding surfaces thus giving away the location and relative distance of objects and prey within its environment.  It’s a bit like the way sonar works in submarines.  In this way bats are able to manoeuvre and navigate at night in almost total darkness. 

Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight.  Their wings consist of a thin, fleshy membrane supported near the leading edge by the greatly elongated bones of the forelimb and second finger, and towards the tip and rear by the third, fourth, and fifth fingers.  It is further attached along the bodyline of the trunk and extends back between the hind limbs and tail.  The thumb of the hand is free and has a sharp hooked claw to help in climbing.  Their feet have five digits or toes, which are also equipped with sharp hooked claws, but these are used to help suspend the bat upside-down when roosting. 

Flying Foxes hanging in trees 

Most all bats are nocturnal.  During the day they roost and rest in a variety of places, but commonly in dark caves and crevices, hollow trees or in shaded foliage, beneath rocks or bark and in abandoned buildings.  Some Megabat species in warmer countries roost in more exposed areas where large colonies of bats can be seen hanging upside down from branches of trees.  Being nocturnal gives bats many advantages, like reduced competition for insects and other food, freedom from attack by predators, and protection from overheating during the day which bats are especially susceptible to due to the size of their wings in relation to their body size.  In countries where winters are cold bats will migrate to warmer climates or hibernate. 

Female bats birth only one pup a year, which when born clings to the mother bat during flight and feeds from her milk.  After approximately four months the pup learns to fly on its own.  For many bat species mating takes place before hibernation, during which time the female stores the sperm in her genital tract throughout the winter and on awakening in spring uses it to fertilize her eggs. 

For their diets, most Megabats feed on fruit, flowers, pollen and nectar, while Microbats also feed on insects, fish, frogs and other small creatures.  A single Microbat can eat something like 3,000 insects in one night, and there is one species, the Vampire bat, that also feeds on the blood of other mammals.  It is the Vampire bat, perhaps more than any other bat, that is responsible for fuelling the imagination of writers and film makers with fear and revulsion, and as a result, given the whole bat population such an evil and sinister reputation (more on this later). 

Bats perform a vitally important ecological role in nature.  Many rainforest trees depend on bats for pollination and seed dispersal, which is particularly important in facilitating regrowth after forest clearances.  Similarly, many tropical plants depend on bats for the distribution of their seeds.  It is estimated there are some 300 bat-dependent plant species yielding more than 450 economically valuable products.  Some of these products include:  Chewing gum, tequila, sisal, medicines, dyes and fuel.  Even the bat’s waste matter, ‘guano’, is utilized as a valuable fertilizer.  Some bats are the keystone species on which whole ecosystems depend for their survival. 

Vampire Bats

Perhaps the most influential source for popularising contemporary fears and dread about bats was the fictional best selling book called “Dracula” (written by the Irish author Bram (Abraham) Stoker (1847-1912) and first published in 1897).  In it, he personalized the characteristics of the Vampire bat into what are now the traditional scary blood sucking Vampire legends.  Such did his book inspire the imaginations of other writers; it led to a whole plethora of similar stories and films on the subject. 

In truth, there are only three species of Vampire bats that feed on the blood of other mammals (usually cattle, horses and large birds such as fowl).  However, despite what popular legend would have us believe, bats do not suck blood.  Bats have very sharp needle-pointed teeth with which they make small incisions on the backs of large prey, and then lap at the resulting blood droplets.  Most Vampire bats are quite small, commonly only 7 to 9 cm (2.75 to 3.5 in) long, and at best could manage to take only a tablespoon of blood each night from its prey, hardly enough to cause death by doing so. 

One of the biggest fears people have concerning bats is Rabies.  Rabies is a virus transmitted among animals, and sometimes humans, when bitten by an already infected carrier.  However, a study conducted by the University of Florida has shown less than one-half of 1 percent of all bats have rabies.  So in truth, the conclusion is that a human is more likely to be bitten by an unvaccinated rabid dog than by a Vampire bat.  Far from being monsters, Vampire bats in general are sociable creatures, caring towards other members of their colony.  They take part in mutual grooming, and will even take care of another’s abandoned young when unable to feed, this they do by regurgitating and sharing the blood they have collected for themselves. 

Interestingly, new medical studies of a clot-dissolving substance found in Vampire bat saliva, could soon be used to benefit human Stroke victims. 

Myths and Folklore

Perhaps because of their nocturnal habits and ability to navigate in the dark, or simply because they appear to be both animal and bird at the same time, bats have long been associated with deity, supernatural forces and the occult.  In the mythologies of differing cultures bats symbolize both good and evil, life and death.  In China many legends associate bats with good fortune.  To them, a group of five bats represented the five causes of happiness:  wealth, health, long life, virtue and a natural death. 

In South America among an ancient Mayan cult of the Quiche, located in the jungles of what is now Guatemala, Camazotz was a minor deity associated with bats.  He was the God of the Caves and is described as having the body of a human with the head and wings of a bat.  According to the Mayan sacred book of initiation rites Popul Vuh, he resided in the Bat-house located in the Underworld, a labyrinth of caves through which huge bats flew.  While legends differ, he was responsible for the seventh test of initiation undertaken by the Mayan Hero Twins, the mythical Mayan ruling deities. 


Mayan artefacts of Camazotz 

In ancient Greece and Rome, it was thought that sleep could be prevented either by placing the engraved figure of a bat under the pillow, or by tying the head of a bat in a black bag and keeping it near to the left arm.  On the Ivory Coast, even today, many think that bats are the spirits of the dead, and in Madagascar, they are assumed to be the souls of criminals, sorcerers and the unburied dead.  In medieval Europe, bats were commonly thought to be witches’ familiars.  In France 1332, Lady Jacaume of Bayonne was publicly burned simply because bats were seen to fly about her house and garden. 

Also in Europe, in the Tyrol regions of Austria, it was believed that if a man wears the left eye of a bat on his person, he may become invisible, and in areas of central Germany, if he wears the heart of a bat bound to his arm with red thread, he will always be lucky at cards.  It was commonly thought that witches used the blood of bats as an ingredient when making flying ointment, and further, to boost the powers of their magickal brews and potions.  To the Gypsies, who were equally ostracized as witches, bats were seen as the bearers of good luck; they even prepared small bags containing dead bat bones for children to wear around their necks as charms. 

In folklore, to wash your face in bat’s blood will enable you to see more clearly in the dark.  To keep a piece of bat bone in your pocket will ensure good luck.  Powdered bat’s heart will staunch bleeding or stop a bullet, and bullets from a gun swabbed with a bat’s heart will always hit their target.  To put bat’s blood into someone’s drink will make him or her more passionate, and you can stimulate a woman’s desire by placing a drop of bat blood under her pillow.  To prevent baldness or your hair greying, you should wash the hair in a concoction of powdered bat wings and coconut oil.  The list of folklore concerning bats is endless, and even Shakespeare got in on the act.  In his famous play Macbeth, he had his three witches adding “wool of bat” to their hellbroth, and in The Tempest (Act I, Scene 2) he had Caliban place a curse on his master Prospero, which included the line: “All the charms of Sycorax, toads, beetles, bats, light on you!” 

Bat as a totem animal

The bat as a totem animal is a symbol representative of transition and rebirth.  A bat appearing in your life could mean that some aspect of your life is coming to an end, and rather than fear the change, you should embrace the transition and look forward to some kind of new beginning.  It's a time for serious self-examination and self-evaluation.  This may sound easy to do, but for most people change is a frightening experience.  Bat’s appearance is there to help you soar above your fears by getting rid of those things in your life that are no longer needed.  Only by facing the darkness of your uncertainties can you progress and find light in new beginnings. 

To many misinformed people, the bat is a symbol of death, but try to embrace the positive powers of the bat.  Bats typically live in deep underground caves, which symbolically is the belly of the Mother (Earth), and from these womb-like caves they emerge each evening at dusk - reborn.   To a shaman the appearance of a bat does not signify actual or physical death, but more the death of old fears or the old ways of doing things that no longer serve you.  By learning from the bat you can fly through any darkness into the light, be transformed, re-born and free. 

“For as the eyes of bats are to the blaze of day, so is the reason in our soul to the things which are by nature most evident of all”  -  Aristotle (384-322 BC).


Penguin Hutchinson Reference Library Copyright (c) 1996 Helicon Publishing and Penguin Books Ltd

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Animal-Speak (The Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small) - By Ted Andrews

Man, Myth and Magic  - Edited by Richard Cavendish

Plus to many websites to mention.


First published in The Controversial Cauldron - the group newsletter of Email Witches

  07th October 2009  ©  George Knowles

Best wishes and Blessed Be


Site Contents - Links to all Pages


Home Page


A Universal Message:


Let there be peace in the world  -   Where have all the flowers gone?


About me:

My Personal PageMy Place in England / My Family Tree (Ancestry)


Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



While I have taken due care and diligence to credit all sources where possible, this website may contain copyrighted material which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner.  My use of making such material available here is done so in my efforts to advance our understanding of religious discrimination, the environmental and social justice issues etc.   If you wish to use copyrighted material from this website for purposes of your own then you must obtain permission from the relevant copyright owner yourself.

Any queries please contact me at email -


My online email discussion group:


Dove of Peace

Help send a message of peace around the world!  The Dove of Peace flies from site to site, through as many countries as possible.  It does not belong to ANY belief system.  Please help make a line around the globe by taking it with you to your site, by giving it to someone for their site, by passing it on to another continent or to the conflict areas of the world.  May trouble and strife be vanquished in it's path.