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The Magic of Rocks and Stones


Written and compiled by - Patricia Jean Martin

Carnelian is a form of Quartz, the most common form of rock in the Earth's crust.  Specifically, geologists classify Carnelian as a Chalcedony; a member of the cryptycrystalline or microcrystalline group within the Quartz family.  Cryptocrystalline crystals are too small to be seen, even with a microscope.   

Having the same chemical make up as Agate, when Carnelian grades into brown it is known as Sard.  When it contains bands of white, it is known as Sardonyx.  In addition, some very dark brown Carnelian can be classified as Jasper.  The distinction between these is very fine and relies more on visual appearance than scientific analysis.  As a result, it is very possible that one man's Carnelian may be another man's Sard, Agate or Jasper.  Chemically, Carnelian is composed of Silicon Dioxide, SiO2, and gets its red color from Hematite (Iron-Oxide, FeO2) impurities.  Many Carnelians offered today are Agates which are dyed and then heat treated.  Natural Carnelian will usually exhibit a cloudy distribution of color. 

The name Carnelian heralds from the Latin word "carnis" and translates to "flesh," probably noted as one of the many shades of the stone.  Another name for Carnelian was Cornelian, most likely derived from the Latin word "cornum" meaning "cherry".  Carnelian's translucent color ranges from yellow-orange to reddish-brown to a deep red, and is enhanced by exposure to the sun.   

Occurring in the cavities of many forms of rock, Carnelian most often develops from the silica-rich soils which solidified at low temperatures.  It typically forms in nodules, cone-shaped masses or groups of stalactites which radiate outward from a central axis.  India has some of the oldest Carnelian deposits, especially around Bengal, Deccan and Ratnapur.  Indian Carnelian is most often a very strong reddish-brown color. 

General Information:

*Chemistry:  SiO2 (Silicon Dioxide). Chalcedony, a variety of Quartz, with FeO2 (Hematite) impurities.  

*Class:  Silicates 

*Group:  Quartz 

*Color:  Translucent yellow-orange to reddish-brown. 

*Luster: Vitreous.  

*Crystal System:  Trigonal; Tetrahedral. 

*Crystal Habit:  Cryptocrystalline.  

*Cleavage:  Absent. 

*Fracture:  Conchoidal. 

*Hardness:  7.0 

*Specific Gravity:  2.60 

*Streak:  White 

*Other Characteristics:  Can be fibrous in appearance. 

*Notable Occurrences:  India, Brazil, Arabia.  

*Best Field Indicators:  Crystal habit, color and hardness. 

*Uses: Ornamental. Gem stone.  

Myths and Lore:

Many sources report that Carnelian be a powerful activator to the second Chakra, called the Sacral Chakra, which relates to a sense of Self... along with the five senses, creativity, reproduction, sexuality and self-gratification. 

Carnelians were used in Ancient Egyptian magick as protection for both the living and the dead.  A Carnelian in the form of the "tjet," symbol of Mother Isis, was placed on the neck of a mummy to ensure the protection, safe passage, and rebirth of the spirit in the afterlife.  Another Carnelian amulet was the Eye of Horus, which is still believed to offer protection against the evil eye.  In Roman times, Carnelian was engraved with the head of a lion or a great leader. 

Magickal uses of Carnelian include using it as a focus for past life work and for finding a "twin soul" or family.  It is good for all love and sex rites, especially to rekindle or increase passion that has begun to fade.  Fire magick is also more effective if you circle a red candle with several Carnelians. 

Mentally, Carnelian can improve analytical abilities and can clarify perception.  It removes extraneous thoughts during meditation and sharpens concentration.  Emotionally, this stone is a powerful protector against envy, rage and resentment...yours or other people's.  It calms anger and banishes negativity, replacing it with a love of life. 

Goethe wrote:

"Carnelian is a talisman,

It brings good luck to child and man;

If resting on an onyx ground,

A sacred kiss imprint when found.

It drives away all evil things;

To thee and thine protection brings.

The name of Allah, king of kings,

If graven on this stone, indeed,

Will move to love and doughty need.

From such a gem a woman gains

Sweet hope and comfort in her pains".

Cleanse and charge Carnelian with sunlight.  They can be used to dispel negativity from other crystals and stones. 

Carnelian is associated with the Zodiac sign of Virgo, but has also been associated with Taurus, Cancer and Leo.  Under the Hebrew, Roman and Arabic birthstones it is also known as an alternate for August; Peridot being the traditional. 

Metaphysical Properties:

Astrological Sign's:  Taurus, Aries, Cancer & Leo. 

Element: Fire & Earth 

Sacral Chakra (though known to work from Root, and above Sacral to Solar Plexus and Heart). 

Strength, confidence and personal power. 


Enhances physical energy. 




Self-actualization, self-esteem. 

Heightens Sexuality/Sensuality. 

Emotional warmth and expression of feelings. 

Stimulates curiosity and analytical precision. 

Dispels rage, anger, or envy. 

Banishes sorry and depression. 

Repels negativity. 

Brings acceptance. 

Rebirth, reincarnation and past life recall. 

Lends ambition and drive to career. 

Gives physical aid in treating:  Blood disorders. Kidneys, kidney stones, emotional dysfunction, sexuality, physical energy, reproductive system and infertility, menstrual problems, arthritis, gall bladder, gall stones, pancreas, asthma, allergies.  Helps relieve lower back pain. 

*NOTE:  Stone therapy should NOT take the place of medical evaluation and procedures, and should be used merely to enhance one's health and well-being. 

My own thoughts and experiences:

I'd read somewhere that if you put a piece of Carnelian under your tongue, it would make you speak with eloquence and precision.  Well, I tried it, and it didn't make me speak any more eloquently.  In fact, the most it did was to further jumble my words.. (maybe I should have used a much smaller stone? and the only other thing it afforded me at that moment was some fun with my tongue twirling around the smooth, slippery, cool stone I'd placed inside my mouth. 

Through the experience though, something more useful came to me.  It led me to think of how it is much too easy for someone to take the vast array of descriptive words assigned to each rock, crystal or stone, and to think or hope for some totally different experience from what the stone will in actuality do for you.  For instance, taking the word "communicative" or the phrase "helps one to communicate better," as Carnelian is supposed to facilitate.  That word or phrase is left open to blanket interpretations.  To one, it may mean to speak one's mind out loud.  To another, it may mean to express oneself better through dance.  And to another it may signify communication through prose...or perhaps art or music.   

Personally, I found that none of the above modes of communication came to me through the power of Carnelian.  What did come to me, though, was action.  Carnelian helps you to communicate bodily..through movement and innuendo.  It makes you incorporate your motions into your everyday practices...(well okay, it's not everyday that I put a stone in my mouth), and will stimulate you to find alternate routes to the root.. (*by* perhaps putting a stone in your mouth <g>).  This route-to-the-root method can and will take place through active and tactile involvement.   

There is a sensuality to Carnelian, and it does not hesitate to share that side of itself with you.  Its lightness in weight -- lighter than any of its other close relatives -- will in turn lighten your emotional state, decrease stress, and even repel anger, all allowing for a more creative and attraction (the art of attracting) side of you to blossom.   

Carnelian's bright orange color -- being at the same time both warm and vibrant -- is a mixture of fiery, lusty, and heady passionate red intermingled within the joyful, bright and stimulating offerings of yellow.  Because it is this seductive combination of these two primary colors encapsulated in a cloudy nebula-like web inside the stone, it very readily displays the heated suggestion that two may become one when they embrace.  Therein lies just one of the many sexuality-enhancing gifts of Carnelian. 

So in conclusion...  In our quick and fast-paced world of instant everything, do we often enough stop to think that there may be more than the one or two interpretations that popped into the forefront of our minds through the implication of this adjective or that?  I'd venture to say most often not.  And this is why I believe that it is best to perform an up-close and personal tête-à-tête and touch with our crystal companions.  And if with them, why not with everything in our lives?  Thank you, Carnelian.


"The Crystal Bible" ~ Judy Hall 

"Love Is In the Earth" ~ Melody 6.htm 

© Patricia Martin

Best wishes and Blessed Be


Site Contents - Links to all Pages


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Let there be peace in the world  -   Where have all the flowers gone?


About me:

My Personal PageMy Place in England / My Family Tree (Ancestry)


Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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