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In Worship of Trees


Written and Compiled by George Knowles


The Ash Tree

The Ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior) is one of the sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft revered by contemporaries and ancients alike.  It is often referred to in verse by the phase “by oak, ash, and thorn,” which is used as a blessing during ritual or to affirm a charge of power in spellcraft.  The Druids believed that oak possessed masculine energy and the thorn feminine energy, the polarities of which were balanced and focused by ash allowing the energies to be readily tapped and directed.  In folklore it was believed that the fairies could be seen and conversed with by mortals wherever the three trees grew together.  The ancient Irish called the ash tree “nin” and its name was given to the letter “N” in the ogham alphabet. 

There are about fifty species of the genus Fraxinus, and cultivation has produced and perpetuated a large number of distinct varieties of which the Weeping Ash and the Curl-leaved Ash are the best known.  The Common Ash and the Privet are the only representatives in England of the Olive tribe Oleaceae.  The Common Ash is a tall handsome tree readily distinguished by its light-grey bark, which is smooth in younger trees and rough and scaly in older ones.  It has large compound leaves divided into four to eight pairs of lance-shaped leaflets, an arrangement that imparts a light feathery arrangement to the foliage.  The leaflets have sharply-toothed margins and are about 3 inches long.  

In April or May according to season and before the appearance of the leaves, the black flower-buds of the previous year's shoots expand into small dense clusters of a greenish white or purplish colour, some of the minute flowers having purple stamens, others pistil only, and some both, but all being devoid of petals and sepals, which owing to the pollen being wind-borne, are not needed as protection or to attract insect visitors.  After fertilization the oblong ovary develops into a thick seed-chamber with a long strap-shaped wing, which is known as an Ash-key (samara).  Bunches of keys hang from twigs in great clusters, at first green and then brown as the seeds ripen.  They remain attached to the tree until the succeeding spring when they are blown off and carried away by the wind to considerable distances from the parent tree.  They germinate vigorously and grow in almost any soil. 

The wood of the ash is a valuable commodity, due to the quickness of its growth and the toughness and elasticity of its timber, in which quality it surpasses most other trees.  The wood is heavy, strong, stiff and hard, and takes a high polish.  It shrinks only moderately in seasoning and bends well after.  It is the toughest and most elastic of our timbers and was used in the old days, and still is today, for spears, bows and arrows.  Ash wood is used for more practical purposes than that of any other tree, being so elastic that a joist of it will bear more pressure before it breaks, than one made of other wood.  Ash wood always fetches a good price being next in value to the Oak and surpassing it for some cases, for it matures more rapidly than Oak and is just as valuable as a sapling wood. 

Before synthetic materials became available, ash wood was in endless demand by railways and other works for building carriages, coaches and wagons.  It was also used for axe-handles and spade-handles, ladders and carts, walking sticks, hoops, hurdles and crates, and a whole multitude of uses in the countryside for agricultural purposes.  It also makes the best oars and the toughest of shafts for carriages.  In its younger stages it is called Ground Ash, which is much used for hop poles, for which it was extensively grown.  Ash wood also makes excellent logs for burning; giving out no smoke and the ashes of the wood makes very good potash. 

The bark of the ash is a grey or greenish-grey colour externally and has numerous small grey or brownish-white warts.  The inner surface is yellowish or yellowish brown is fibrous and nearly smooth.   Of old, ash bark was used to make quills and was employed for tanning nets.  The bark is astringent and together with its leaves has medicinal uses, which fetch prices worthy of the labour it takes to collect it.  The bark is collected from the trunk and the root with the latter being preferred.  It contains the bitter glucoside Fraxin, the bitter substance Fraxetin, tannin, quercetin, mannite, a little volatile oil, gum and malic acid. 

Folklore and Myths:

In folklore and mythology the ash tree has many associations with the gods, such as:  Uranus, Poseidon, Thor, Odin, Oceanus, Nemesis, Mars, and Gwydion.  The Greek goddess Nemesis carried an ash branch as the symbol the divine instrument of the justice of the gods, the scourge.  In iconology she is also depicted with an eight-spoke wheel symbolic of the solar year.  The wheel is also a symbol of the Fates who dispensed her justice under and through the ash tree, metering out happiness or misery and ensuring that fortune was shared and not cosseted by the few.  If anyone hoarded the favours she had given or didn’t sacrifice some or part of it to the gods, or didn’t try to alleviate the poverty and misery of fellow man.  Nemesis would step in and withdraw what was given dispensing justice through humiliation with a scourge made of ash. 

In later Greek myths Nemesis was identified as Andrasteia, daughter of the sea god Oceanus and goddess of the “rain making ash tree”.  In this aspect her scourge was used for ritual flogging to bring fruitfulness and productivity to the trees and crops.  This association with Oceanus the god of the sea through his daughter Andrasteia, connects the ash tree with thunderstorms, which waters the earth and fertilizes the land.  The ash tree is said to attract lightening.  As well as the ash branch, wheel and scourge Nemesis also carried an apple branch as a reward for heroes. 

The ash tree is also associated with Divination, Prophecy and Inspiration.  Odin is said to have hung from an ash tree in order to gain enlightenment before reading the runes.  In Norse mythology and to the ancient Teutons the ash tree represented Yggdrasill, also known as the World Tree.  This was their concept of the universe and revered as the tree of Time and of Life.  In Scandinavian myth the first man was formed from the ash and the first woman from rowan. 

One of the ritual tools of a Witch is the Broom, which traditionally was made by tying the twigs of a Birch tree around a handle made of Ash with strips of Willow.  In folklore it was thought that the Ash with its association with water had command over the four elements.  The Birch with its connection to the spirits of the dead drew those spirits into one’s service and the Willow through its connection with Hecate allowed communication with the Goddess.  The handle, brush and binding of the broom are also symbolic of the triformis aspects of the Goddess. 

The ash tree is known by several folk names:  Nion, Asktroed, Jasen Bell and Freixo.  It is associated with such deities as:  Uranus, Poseidon, Thor, Odin, Neptune, Nemesis, Mars, and Gwydion.  Its gender type is Masculine, its planet ruler is the Sun, and its associated element is Fire.  Ash is used to attract the powers needed for Protection, Prosperity, Prophecy, Health, and Sea and Water rituals. 

Magical Uses:

As is the case with most trees, one of the main properties and uses of the ash tree is that of protection.  Of old, a staff of ash was hung over doorframes to ward off malign influences, or ash leaves were scattered in the four directions to protect a house or area, or a garter made from its green bark was worn as protection against sorcerers and physic attacks.  Ash was also used as protection from snakebites; snakes have an innate fear of the ash tree and will not crawl over its wood. 

The Ash had the reputation of magically curing warts, this was done by sticking a new pin in an ash tree then removing it, prick the wart you wish to remove and then replace the pin back in the tree, repeat the following rune:  “Ashen tree, ashen tree, Pray take this wart of me.”  (Use a new pin for each wart.) 

Carve a piece of ash wood into the shape of a solar cross (an equal-armed cross) and carry it with you when traveling across sea or water for protection against drowning.  Healing wands are also carved out of ash wood and healing poppets can be carved from its roots. 

Scatter some ash leaves in a bowl of water and place it under a bed over night to prevent and heal illness.  The next morning the water and leaves should be discarded outside on open ground then repeat the procedure each evening until well.  Leaves can also be sewn into small sachets and worn as health or protection charms.  To gain the love of the opposite sex, carry some loose ash leaves in your pockets. 

By burning ash wood at Christmas time (Yule) you will receive prosperity and if you want your newborn child to be a good singer bury its first nail parings under an ash tree.  However, given duality in all things not all the ash tree merits are good.  The ash tree has a particular affinity with lightning, which it attracts.  Under an ash tree is not the place to be during an electrical storm. 

Medicinal Uses:

The bark of the ash was used as a bitter tonic and astringent, and is said to have been valuable as an anti-periodic.  On account of its astringency it was used as a decoction, and extensively in the treatment of intermittent fever and ague, it was also used as a substitute for Peruvian bark.  The decoction is odourless though its taste is fairly bitter.  It was considered useful for removing obstructions of the liver and spleen, as well as aiding rheumatism of an arthritic nature. 

The leaves have diuretic, diaphoretic and purgative properties and are employed in modern herbal medicine for their laxative action, especially in the treatment of gouty and rheumatic complaints proving a useful substitute for Sienna, having a less griping effect.  The infusion of the leaves (1 oz to the pint of water) may be given in frequent doses during any 24-hour period.  The distilled water of the leaves can be taken every morning and was considered good for dropsy and obesity, and a decoction of the leaves in white wine had the reputation of dissolving stones and curing jaundice.  The leaves should be gathered in June, well dried and powdered and kept in well-corked bottles.  In some parts of the country the leave were used to feed cattle when grass was scarce in autumn, but when cows eat the leaves or shoots, their butter becomes rank. 

The fruits of the different species of Ash are regarded as somewhat more active than the bark and leaves.  The ancient physicians had a high regard for ash keys and used them as a remedy for flatulence.  In more recent times ash key were said to have the “virtue of capers” and were often substituted for them in sauces and salads, or preserved with salt and vinegar and sent to table as a pickle. 

Astrologically ash people (i.e. whose who are born in the month of January) are uncommonly attractive, vivacious, impulsive and demanding.  They do not care for criticism, are ambitious, intelligent, and talented and like to play with fate.  They can be egoistical but are very reliable and trustworthy.  They are faithful and prudent lovers though sometimes their heads rule over the heart but they take their partnerships very seriously.  Ash people are also very ambitious in love and business and whatever they be, they wish to be the best.


Cunningham's Encyclopedia Of Magical Herbs - By Scott Cunningham.

Encyclopedia of Wicca & Witchcraft - By Raven Grimassi.

The Encyclopedia of Witches & Witchcraft - By Rosemary Ellen Guiley.

Tree Wisdom (The definitive guidebook to the myth, folklore and healing power of Trees) - By Jacqueline Memory Paterson.

AA Book of Britain's Countryside.

The Penguin Hutchinson Reference Library (CD cassette).

Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (CD cassette).

Plus many websites to numerous to mention.


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Best Wishes and Blessed Be.


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Correspondence Tables:


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Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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