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Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Rudolf Steiner



Written and compiled by George Knowles


Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was a Austrian literary scholar, philosopher, theosophist and social reformer, an architect, playwright, artist and prolific lecturer on a wide range of subjects including:  agriculture, the arts, education, medicine and spiritual development.  He founded a ‘spiritual science’ movement called Anthroposophy, and created the first Waldorf School based on his own educational system that has since been adopted worldwide.


Born on the 25th February 1861, at Kraljeviç, Austria (now in Croatia), from an early age Steiner showed a high level aptitude for learning.  However his father was a poor telegraph operator working for the Southern Austria railway and could little afford him an expensive education.  He later took a position as stationmaster near Vienna, which enabled him to send his son to High School in Wiener-Neustadt.


After finishing High School in 1879, Steiner enrolled at the Vienna Institute of Technology to study Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy, during which time he supported himself as a private tutor, often to his fellow students.  While there, he became immersed in the philosophical writings of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and in 1882 was offered a position as editor for a new edition of his scientific works.



Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


In his autobiography, Steiner tells us that when he was 21, while on his way home on the train from Vienna he met a gardener named Felix Koguzki, who gathered and sold herbs for a living.  Koguzki spoke to him about the spiritual world, and of how he understood the language of plants, which told him what sicknesses they could heal.  The gardener then introduced him to another traveler who Steiner identifies only as a “master”, but who had a great influence on Steiner’s later development, in particular, directing him to study the philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte (a German philosopher who expounded a form of idealism).



Johann Gottlieb Fichte


After his graduation in 1883, Steiner continued working as an editor and archivist, and throughout the 1880s worked on a complete edition of Goethe’s writings.  In 1890 he was invited to work at the prestigious Schiller-Goethe Archives in Weimar, eastern Germany.  In the following year he received a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Rostock, and later published his dissertation as a book Wahrheit und Wissenschaft (Truth and Science - 1892).  While working at the archives he also wrote his most important philosophical work Die Philosophie der Freiheit (The Philosophy of Freedom - 1894), an exploration of epistemology and ethics upon which humans might become spiritually free beings.


In 1897 he moved to Berlin, and while working as an editor for various magazines, published and edited his own intellectual publication, the Magazine for Literature.  He also began teaching two evenings a week at the Arbeiterbildungsschule (School for the Education of Workers), where he discussed his ideas of a universal education for the working classes.  This led him to write a controversial article rejecting anti-Semitic ideas, which later after the 1914-18 World War, made him many enemies.  In 1899 he married his first wife Anna Eunike, a lady he had lodged with while working in Weimar, but the marriage later ended in divorce.




Anna Eunike and  Rudolf Steiner (approx 1900)


Later Steiner joined the Berlin branch of the Theosophical Society, and by 1902 was made General Secretary of the Society in Germany.  During his numerous lectures on theology and relativism, he began to develop his own philosophies for which he coined the term “Anthroposophy” (meaning human wisdom) to describe his own system of “spiritual science”.  Among his early books devoted to Anthroposophy were Outline of Occult Science (1909) and Outline of Esoteric Science (1910).


Toward the end of 1912 Steiner had a disagreement of ideas with Annie Besant, leader of the Theosophical Society, which caused him to leave the Society, taking with him most of the members from the German section.  As a result, he founded the ‘Anthroposophical Society’ to promote his own ideas.  A year later he designed and began building the ‘Goetheanum’, a School of Spiritual Science in Dornach, Switzerland.  Constructed mainly of wood and using the skills of local craftsman, throughout the start of World War I, volunteers from all over Europe worked peaceably side by side on the project.  As work on the building progressed, in 1914 Steiner married his second wife Marie von Sivers, an actress from the Baltic, a theosophist and a devotee of his new movement.




Annie Besant  -   Marie von Sivers


As war erupted across Europe, Steiner began to expand on his earlier anti-Semitic ideas, and the Threefold Social argued that the war showed a need for peaceful methods of conflict resolution.  After the war, in 1919, he explored his educational ideas in a lecture to workers at the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory in Stuttgart, Germany, after which he was approached by the factory owner Emil Molt, who suggested he set up a school for the factory worker’s children modeled on his ideas.  As a result, the first Waldorf School was founded and named after the factory.


His ideas for social change fell mainly on deaf ears however, as the zeal for National Socialism led by Adolf Hitler began to spread throughout Germany.  Indeed his ideas made him a target for extremist right-wing Nationalists, who made public threats against him and the Goetheanum.  On New Year’s Eve 1922 the Goetheanum building was burned down by arsonists and all that remained was his frontispiece - a huge sculpture he had designed with the English sculptress Edith Maryon - 'The Representative of Humanity', a depiction of the spiritual forces active in the world and human beings.  Undeterred, Steiner immediately began work on a second Goetheanum, but this time constructed of concrete.  The new building was completed in 1928, three years after his death, and today is the main headquarters and cultural centre of Anthroposophy and its School of Spiritual Science.




The first Goetheanum  -  The Representative of Humanity  -  The second Goetheanum


By the start of the 1920s Steiner had re-doubled the number of his lectures and began promoting not just his Social Reform ideas, but expanding his theories in many other areas of human endeavor.  On Spirituality – his theories centered on the ‘human being’ rather than God, in that the spiritual world was accessible to a properly developed intellect.  His term Anthroposophy implies “knowledge produced by the higher self in man”.  According to Steiner, the innate spiritual capacity of the individual had long been suppressed by his devotion to materialism, but this can be overcome intellectually through meditation and concentration.  He also believed in reincarnation, in that people are reincarnated several times before attaining complete self-consciousness.


On Education - his Waldorf teaching concepts have been adopted all over the world.  The agricultural system he founded (Bio-dynamic agriculture) contributed significantly to the development of today’s modern organic farming methods.  His work in anthroposophical medicine has led to a wide range of complementary medications and therapies, while his methods for teaching people with developmental disabilities are commonly used in care homes and special needs schools.  His paintings and drawings have been exhibited in museums and galleries, and have influenced many modern artists, and his Goetheanum buildings have inspired many of today’s leading modern architects.


Toward the end of 1924 Steiner was forced to give up his lectures due to an unknown stomach illness; some even feared he had been poisoned, but no truth in this was ever found.  Steiner died in Dornach on the 30th March 1925.




First published on the 11th February 2011  ©  George Knowles



Best wishes and Blessed Be



Site Contents - Links to all Pages


Home Page


A Universal Message:


Let there be peace in the world  -   Where have all the flowers gone?


About me:

My Personal PageMy Place in England / My Family Tree (Ancestry)


Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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