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Animals and Witchcraft

(The Witches Familiar)



Written and compiled by George Knowles

One Crow for sorrow,

Two Crows for mirth;

Three Crows for a wedding,

Four Crows for a birth;

Five Crows for silver,

Six Crows for gold;

Seven Crows for a secret, not to be told;

Eight Crows for heaven,

Nine Crows for hell;

And ten Crows for the devils own self.


The Crow is any of several large black birds belonging to the family of Passerine birds that comprise the genus Corvus, which include:  Jays, Magpies, Nutcrackers, Jackdaws and Ravens.  They can be found on every continent except South America and Antarctica, but some, especially those found on islands, are endangered and their habits little known.  Northern-hemisphere crows are sometimes migratory, but most often they stay resident the year round. 

Crows in many respects are very similar to the Raven in appearance, but are smaller and less heavily billed.  Like the Ravens, Crows are among the most intelligent and adaptable of birds and several species have been able to thrive near humans.  Crows grow to about 50cm (20 inches) long and are commonly coloured a glossy black, they can live up to 13 years in the wild and more than 20 years in captivity.  The typical call of Crow is a loud and harsh caw-caw-caw” or “crah-crah-crah” sound, which is characteristic for each species.  Some pet Crows even “speak”, and in laboratory conditions some have learned to count to three or four and find food in boxes marked with symbols. 

Crows are gregarious birds and at times roost together in great numbers, when wintering, a single flock can number many thousands.  In literary terms, the collective noun for a group of crows is a “murder”, however most people today and especially scientists, use the more generic term of “flock” or “horde  Each mating pair will have its own nest, which is usually built high up in tall trees and made of sticks and twigs.  Here the female will lay and incubate three to eight greenish-to-olive eggs, which when hatched, both parents then care for the young.



Crows are omnivorous and will eat grain, berries, insects, vegetable matter, carrion, garbage, small animals, and the eggs and nestlings of other birds.  Crows also eat insects, but their habit of eating cultivated grain makes them very unpopular with farmers, and in some agricultural areas Crow is considered a great pest.  They have also been known to kill weak lambs (which again doesn’t endear them to farmers), as well as feeding on corpses most probably killed by other means.  Crows feed mainly on the ground, where they can be seen regally waddling about in a sedate manner. 

Crows are territorial in the breeding season, and will gather together to mob owls and other predators, but due to their habit of raiding other bird’s nests, they in turn are often attacked.  Their natural enemies are birds of prey, Hawks and Falcons, which soar high in the sky above the trees.  They hunt mainly on bright sunny days when contrast between light and shadow is greatest.  Crows take advantage of this by maneuvering themselves through the dappled shades of the trees, where their black color renders them invisible to their enemies above, and use this to set up complex ambush attacks.  This is were Crow differs most from Raven, who tends to soar high in the air much as birds of prey do, and like them, are usually the target of ambushes by Crows.  Crows do not appear to perceive Ravens as their own kind, but instead treat them as birds of prey. 

While Hawks and Falcons tend to be the primary daytime predators of Crows, their most deadly predators are the Owls that hunt by night, preying upon Crows while they sleep in their roosts.  Crows often mob Owls much more fiercely when they find them in daylight, more so than other predators.  Frequently Crows will appear to “play” with Hawks and Falcons, while escorting them out of their territory.  Their attacks on Owls however, possess a definite serious quality. 

In the United States of America it is legal to hunt Crows in most states, where the “Crow hunting season” is usually from around August to the end of March.  Crows can also be hunted outside the open season, if in compliance with federal regulations, they are deemed to be causing a nuisance or creating a health hazard.  In the United Kingdom it is illegal to kill or take Crows from the wild, and in Australia it is illegal to kill any native birds.



In many mythologies because of their similarities, Crow and Raven are often mixed up, and in the telling of their myths and legends; one frequently takes the place of the other.  Like the Raven, Crow was considered a messenger of the gods, and is associated with the Sun, weather, longevity, beginnings, bad luck and death.  Crow is also associated with the visible and invisible worlds, and was considered a bird of omen and prophecy.  Because of his intelligence and cunning, Crow was also seen as a trickster, and many believed that fairies turned into Crows in order to cause mischief.



In heraldry, a crow was used to indicate a dark person such as a Moor or Saracen.  In Egypt, two crows, like two doves, is an emblem of monogamy.  Among the ancients Celts, a white Crow was associated with the heroine Branwen, while her brother Bran was associated with Raven.  Crow also features in Native American mythology; among the Chipewayan people of eastern Canada he is considered a trickster, while the Navaho refer to missionaries as Crows, because of their black robes. 

In Greek and Roman mythologies, Crow is associated with the gods Saturn, Cronus and Athena, the goddess of wisdom, victory and the arts.  When a Crow gave Athena some bad news, she flew into a rage and cursed his feathers to be black forever.  Similar to that is a story of how Apollo turned white Raven into black Raven for being the bearer of bad news, while another story tells how Apollo did the same to Crow after the birth of Hermes: 

Hermes was a child of Zeus, father of the Olympian gods, and Maia a daughter of Atlas who holds up the earth.  As well as being the messenger of the god’s, Hermes was also a dangerous foe, trickster and a thief, who from the day he was born was the source of much mischief.  On the day of his birth, Hermes stole a herd of prized cows from his brother, the sun god Apollo, and obscured their trail by making the herd walk backward. 

The next day when Apollo found his herd of cows gone, he asked his white Crows who had stolen them.  The Crows replied:  “It was the twelfth god of Olympus, only a day old, who spirited your herd away”.  This made Apollo very angry “You lying birds” he cried, “there are only eleven gods of Olympus, and I will punish you for your lies”.  So he turned the Crows black.  When Apollo went in search of the cows, he came upon a cave where Maia sat with the baby Hermes on her lap.  He was playing a lyre he had just invented and made from the shell of a turtle.  Apollo asked Maia “Who is this child, so clever as to make such a marvellous thing at such a young age”?



“This is Hermes, your new brother and the twelfth Olympian”, she replied.  It was then Apollo realised that the Crows had told the truth.  He pointed an accusing finger at the baby Hermes and said, “So you stole my prized herd of cows, you must give them back immediately”.  Hermes answered in a soothing voice “but I cannot dear brother, I have already made a feast of them, but come and eat with me and we’ll discuss things”.  So Apollo ate with Hermes who in order to make amends gave Apollo the lyre and taught him to play it expertly.  As for the Crows, they remained black forever. 

In Irish Celtic mythology, Crow is associated with Morrigán, one of a group of three war goddesses who had the ability to shape change.  Together with her two sisters Badb and Macha, Morrigán would turn herself into a Crow and perch on the top of houses to “caw” out her prophecies of war.  She would often appear to warriors who were about to be killed, and later feed on the bodies of the slain after battles. 

In Greek mythology, Apollo sent a crow to fetch a cup of water.  Crow however, got distracted eating figs and after much delay, finally remembered his mission.  Rightly figuring that Apollo would be angry, Crow plucked a snake from the water and concocted a story about how it had attacked and delayed him.  Apollo was not fooled and angrily flung all three into the sky, placing the Crow and cup on the snake’s back.  Then the god ordered Hydra to never let the crow drink from the cup.  As a further punishment, he ordered that the Crow should never sing again, only croak and caw

Crows are believed to have long lives, in his Metamorphoses Ovid speaks of the witch Medea injecting the veins of the elderly Jason with the blood of a Crow that had outlived nine generations of men.  In Wales it was a common custom to doff one’s hat at the sight of a Crow, and in Scotland, witches were said to transform themselves into Crows.  Crows are believed to possess the power of divination; their “caws” were oracles, thought to be warnings or directives. 

In Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara is the earthly manifestation of the self-born eternal Buddha Amitābha, who guarded the world in the interval between the departure of the historical Gautama Buddha and the appearance of the future Maitreya Buddha.  Amitābha is often closely associated with the crow because it is said that when the first Dalai Lama was born, robbers attacked their family home.  His parents fled the house in fear, and in their haste left the Dalai Lama “home alone”.  When they returned the next morning expecting the worst, they found their home untouched and a pair of Crows caring for the new born Dalai Lama.  It is believed that Crows heralded the birth of the First, Seventh, Eighth, Twelfth and Fourteenth Dalai Lamas, the latter currently being Tenzin Gyatso.


Crow Totem Spirit and Medicine:

Contributed by  -  Patricia Jean Martin 

The crow is a major member of the Corvids family (genus, Corvus) along with raven, magpie, blue jay and others, so some of the major teachings of Crow have already been posted within the texts on Raven.  As this is the case, I will need to mention some of the similarities between the two, but will concentrate mainly on the differences.  For more in-depth knowledge, a study of Raven would be beneficial to anyone with Crow as their Totem or Spirit Guide, and vice-versa.  


If Crow has called on you, you may soon find the following show up in your life: A call to magick, a better understanding of the creative forces within and without, a greater nudging to speak your truth, and the courage and cunning to fly into the Void in order to retrieve the necessary knowledge and wisdom to manifest all of the above and more.  

When Crow comes into your life, you can also expect to gain a better self-understanding, greater intuitive reflexes, guidance while shapeshifting through the shadows, and the opportunity to learn about the advantages of determination and watchfulness.  Extremely intelligent (along with ravens, crows are noted as being the most intelligent of all birds), the crow will work diligently at manipulating an object or their surroundings until they have accomplished what they've set out to do.  Like the raven, they are known to use physical tools along with ingenious methods of action that are noted as being well thought out and even planned.  For those with Crow Totem, all these mental capacities and skilful manoeuvres reflect a need to use one's inner senses and outer resources to their fullest. 

A crow will build its nest up higher than most other birds do, and they do this for several reasons.  The most important are for safety and to secure a wider visual range.  A ship's highest lookout point (a small circular balcony surrounding a tall mast) is called a "Crow's Nest" for obvious good reason.  Those working with Crow medicine will find it advantageous to work on broadening their horizons, along with anticipating and being on the lookout for new opportunities that are sure to come when under Crow's tutelage.  The crow has often been nicknamed "The Sentinel," as one will often sit and watch and remain aware of all that is going on around them in order to protect other crows in the flock (technically called a "murder") and to make sure no harm comes to their family.  One can learn a lot in this respect, and Crow will teach you how better to do the same.  From this higher perspective and this watchful awareness, your perception increases and you are able to foresee what is in the offing, thus giving you greater opportunity to be prepared for and/or embrace what is coming your way.  

Crow, unlike the raven, does not mind living in populated areas.  They are apt to cohabitate with humans and often live near or around them, as opposed to the raven's deep forest preference.  In fact, it is very easy to befriend a crow.  Some people have even been known to keep them as pets.  A crow very easily bonds and is imprinted with the image and mannerisms of its keeper and will remain faithful and trusting throughout their relationship if well cared for.  This shows the bird's willingness to work with humans, and also gives insight into their teachings of being strongly connected to kin...of recognizing family, even if through past lives shared... and of honouring the spirit of their kin and never forgetting them.  Past life regression becomes easier when working with Crow Spirit.  And through their prompting, acknowledgment and veneration of one's ancestors is brought to the forefront of your memory.



Crow's character is one of protector, scholar, messenger, and a bit of trickster.  They can be very playful, quite amorous, and very wilful...almost downright cocky, actually.  And akin to ravens, crows like to talk.  Most people find their vocals brassy and annoying, but one with Crow Totem will find them quite soothing, peaceful to the soul, and even joyful and interesting to listen to.  Learning to listen to the various tones, inflections and repetitive but varied patterns of the crow's voice can teach you such things as how to work cooperatively, how to discern the truth behind another's words, how to read between the lines, and even how to predict the weather, be alerted to the sudden appearance of a predator, or how to navigate life successfully.  But even through all of Crow's love of talk, they will also teach you the very to stay advantageously silent when necessary.  The Four Cornerstones of Magick (the Witch's Pyramid) is in no way foreign to Crow. 

Omnivorous and apt to eat most anything available, Crow shows you how to maintain a keen sense of personal survival and how to have an "appetite" for a wide and diverse store of knowledge that you will "eat"...take inside, digest, and either be nourished by or spit out.  How to use that nourishing knowledge can often be learned by watching the movements and antics of the crow - how they interact, why they interact, and when and with whom they interact.  When you learn how to use wisely the vast array of knowledge they offer you, it then becomes wisdom.  Raven medicine is more apt to delve more deeply into this conversion of knowledge to wisdom, but Crow will always, at the very least, open the door and offer you the way.  

Aside from merely observing crows in the wild, you can work with the quintessence of Crow in the Spirit world.  Here, Crow's own wisdom, offered to you very often in a knowledgeable message form but also in connective experience, is invaluable.  They possess the ability to peer into all realms, to coexist in the world of timelessness, and they are very likely to delve into the depths of hidden and obscure knowledge and emerge with a message.  It's a bit of a wild ride when working with Crow medicine, as they can take you high aloft to towering realms where the essence of magick may manifest but has yet to fully form, and in the next minute take you perilously deep down into the depths of your psyche, where they almost impatiently will expect you to simultaneously pull forth and examine the message they've delivered from both.  In working with Crow, I've found it best to mimic them by staying open and courageous and willing to receive.  I've also found they will scoff at you if you do not heed their messages.



Yes, Crow is the epitome of all messengers.  Some older superstitions carry the belief that the visit and call of the crow is an omen of impending death, but this was probably adopted in thought as a result of a series of ancient myths - one being where Crow delivered unwelcome news to Apollo, who in turn smote the then pure white messenger by turning him and all his brethren to the colour black.  In going from white to black, Crow was actually given the gift of now knowing both of these realms very well - wherein the past, present and future are frequently visited by this most magickal and mystical bird.  Being well-known for their methodical and meticulous explorations and their curious and brazen dispositions, Crow Spirit delves deeply into the Void in order to bring word of what may be in need of a better balance in your life.  Like their kindred, the Raven, Crow's colour even reminds us that things are never just black and white.  Within their present black colour lie all the other colours of the spectrum pulled within - as within one's self lie all the secrets of magick.  Black is the colour associated with creation.  It is the Void in which all new things are birthed.  It is pure potential awaiting the spark of thought.  Those with Crow Totem will find themselves pushed to seek out and bring back harmony, balance and justice to their world, and will be urged to unleash their unlimited creativity.  In the act of creation, though, some outdated habits and things that are no longer useful are apt to demand change and transformation.  Crow medicine very often heralds change through the aspects of death and rebirth.  Crow is the Totem of Destiny.  

As leaders and messengers in the world of Totems, you can expect Crow to lead you to magick at every step.  With Crow being my own Life Totem, I've had them literally physically lead me to things of importance in terms of my enlightenment, and other times merely to a place or thing just for the sheer pleasure of viewing it.  In fact, I use them as guides quite frequently.  When travelling, I am very apt to see Crows along the way.  In fact, I worry if I don't.  Whenever I do see a Crow while walking or driving, I can usually expect something exciting to appear just around the bend.  Just as they are known for being attracted to bright and shiny objects (which they will often steal and stash away for their own enjoyment), they tend to lead you to them too, both literally and metaphorically.  It's not unlikely that you'll find something awe-inspiring - something that brings bright spiritual light and shining resonance to your life - immediately after spotting a Crow.  They also very noticeably show up at particular times where I've been able to relate it to my own action and whereabouts, in the sense that they let me know I am in the right place at the right time.  Crow's attraction to the bright and shiny can help you learn to value the light in yourself and in others.  

In all these things and much more, Crow is an extraordinarily gifted teacher and guide.




Animal-Speak (The Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small) - By Ted Andrews 

European Myth & Legend - By Mike Dixon-Kennedy 

Oxford Dictionary of World Mythology - By Arthur Cotterall 

Microsoft Encarta CD 2006 © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation.


Written and compiled 19th July 2007 © George Knowles

Best wishes and Blessed Be


Site Contents - Links to all Pages


Home Page


A Universal Message:


Let there be peace in the world  -   Where have all the flowers gone?


About me:

My Personal PageMy Place in England / My Family Tree (Ancestry)


Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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