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Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Zsuzsanna Budapest



Written and compiled by George Knowles


Zsuzsanna Budapest is a hereditary witch of Hungarian descent, an American author and media personality who writes predominantly on women's spirituality.  In 1971 she founded the Dianic Wicca tradition of witchcraft, which led to the formation of the “Susan B. Anthony Coven Number One”She is also the director of the "Women’s Spirituality Forum" located in the Bay Area of San Francisco.


Born Zsuzsanna Emese Mokcsay in Budapest, Hungary on the 23rd January 1940, her mother Masika Szilagyi was a psychic medium and a practicing witch who supported the family as a ceramics artist and sculptress.  Masika’s work was Goddess inspired, she used ancient motifs such as the tree of life, flowers and other nature based symbols to decorate her works.  As a practicing witch she used simple trance magic induced by chants and rhymes, as well as using herbs and spells for practical uses.  She brought up her daughter to respect and appreciate nature as the Mother Goddess.


Zsuzsanna claims her family kept an Ancestor Book dating back to the year 1270, in it was listed the births and deaths of all her past family members.  She also claims that many of her family had been healers, indeed her grandmother Ilona had been an herbalist and naturalist healer and her step-father a doctor.  As according to tradition, while she was a child her mother taught and passed on to her the family lore and secrets of the craft.  At the age of 12 Zsuzsanna met a 14-year-old boy called Tom, and knew instinctively they would marry later in life, but circumstances at the time dictated they should part.


In Hungary at that time the privations of post war Europe followed by the political oppression of Russian occupation had created an ugly mood of unrest and rebellion throughout the country.  On the 23rd of October 1956 that mood erupted into a violent uprising and all across Hungary protesters clashed with state authorities.  The Red Army were sent in and within a few days ruthlessly crushed the rebellion, but the cost was great, at least 2,000 Hungarians and 640 Soviet soldiers died in the conflict.  Soviet reprisals followed:  about 300 revolutionaries were executed and another 22,000 sentenced to prison terms.  Zsuzsanna along with some 200,000 Hungarians, mostly young workers and students like herself, fled the country as political refugees.



Soviet tank in occupied Hungary


After settling in Austria, Zsuzsanna continued her high school education in Innsbruck and graduated from a bilingual gymnasium (a German or Scandinavian secondary school that prepares students for university).  She then won a scholarship to the University of Vienna where she studied languages.  Having been separated during the Hungary uprising, Zsuzsanna was reunited with her childhood sweetheart Tom, when in 1958 through a family contact he was able to relocate her in Austria.  Soon after they were engaged.


In 1959 Zsuzsanna and her fiancé immigrated to the United States where she was awarded a scholarship at the University of Chicago.  Just three weeks after their arrival she married Tom, and during the following two years gave birth to two sons Laszo and Gabor.  Zsuzsanna studied at “The Second City” an improvisational theatrical school from where she learned the skills she would later use to conduct rituals and train Priestesses.  By this time she was already improvising and practicing her family’s tradition as a solitary witch, using a make shift alter in the backyard of her home to worship the Goddess.


In 1964 Zsuzsanna moved the family to New York were they settled in Port Washington, Long Island.  While there Zsuzsanna enrolled in the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and Tom took a teaching job as a mathematics professor.  By this time however, Zsuzsanna had noticed how women in America were being treated to a similar regime of oppression as she had experienced in Hungary.  Women were treated much as chattel, mothers at home and slaves in the kitchen, none were treated as equal to men in the work place.  By 1970 her marriage to Tom was over and ended in divorce.


Zsuzsanna moved to California where she became involved with the women’s liberation and feminist movements in Los Angeles.  She started work at an Abortion Clinic and Women’s Center, and soon became an activist leader on women’s issues.  However she saw a need to develop a female centered theology that would not only help women, but also encourage woman to participate in a religion that combined empowerment with a Goddess centered spirituality.  Drawing on her family heritage and her own improvisational skills, Zsuzsanna brought together six female friends and began celebrating the sabbat rituals in her home.  This led to the founding of the first women’s only coven during the winter solstice of 1971, named after one of the leaders of the women’s suffrage movement and called:  “The Susan B. Anthony Coven Number One”.


As word about her rituals and women only coven became known, more and more women wanted to join and participate.  As the coven grew, her home could no longer accommodate their expanding membership, so they began to celebrate openly on the beach and then later on a mountaintop in Malibu.  Zsuzsanna called her blend of ritual and magic “Dianic Wicca”, which was based on her own family tradition of ritual and magic as she had learned it from her mother.


Over the years as coven hived of coven, and sister covens spread across the country, Dianic Wicca became a major force in supporting modern day feminist values in the rapidly expanding feminist and witchcraft movements.  For a time in the early 1970 Dianic Wicca became synonymous with “radical lesbianism”, however Dianic Wicca is not about lesbianism, its main focus is about women’s spirituality.  While lesbians are included in the mix, so are bisexual and heterosexual women, and all participate and contributed to the main focus of the tradition “spirituality”.  Susanna's dream is the revival of a Women’s Mystery tradition for the benefit of all women.


As they evolved Dianic Wiccans followed a similar pattern to traditional Wiccans in that they both attend festivals and celebrated nature in their monthly Sabbat and Esbat rituals, but they differ in a number of their beliefs and practices.  The main difference being that Dianic Wiccans worship only the Goddess and their covens are strictly women only.


In traditional Wicca there is normally a year and a day wait period before a person is allowed to join a coven proper, but in Dianic Wicca new women allowed to worship with them right away, even though not yet initiated.. In traditional covens a High Priestess and Priest lead each ritual and are looked upon as elders of the craft or coven.  The same is true for Dianic covens, minus the High Priest.


Dianic Wiccans use much the same rituals as do traditional Wiccans, but these are adapted to suit their own needs and practices.  During the “Drawing Down the Moon” ritual, traditionally a man draws down the moon on a woman who is then assumed to hold the power of the Goddess.  In Dianic Wicca, a woman draws down the moon on herself and then shares the power of the Goddess with all other members of the coven.


While Dianic Wiccans profess to conform with the Wiccan Rede:  An Harm None, Do What You Will”, contrary to traditional Wiccan practice, they are not adverse to working negative magic or binding spells if it be for positive ends, i.e. to relieve women from oppression, and more importantly to counter crimes of violence against women and aid in the capture of serial killers and rapists etc.


Zsuzsanna led the “Susan B. Anthony Coven Number One” for nearly 10 years, while at the same time teaching and initiating Priestesses.  She opened the first women’s spirituality shop called “The Feminist Wicca” in Venice, California, and self-published what was to become the classic textbook of Dianic Wicca:  The Feminist Book of Lights and Shadows” (1975).  Later she sold the book to the publisher BookPeople (1989) who reissued it as “The Holy Book of Women’s Mysteries” and then to Weiser Books (2007).



The Holy Book of Women’s Mysteries


In 1975 Zsuzsanna made headline news when an undercover policewomen arrested her for giving an unlawful Tarot Card reading.  She was charged under a municipal law prohibiting fortune telling.  When her case went to trial Zsuzsanna lost and received a $300 fine plus a period of probation, she was also forbidden to give any further readings.  Instead of doing reading herself, Zsuzsanna then started to teach Tarot reading classes and ran other courses in divination and witchcraft.  As a result of her trial, nine years later the old laws were finally repealed.  It is thanks to Zsuzsanna efforts that today all psychics and divination readers can freely practice their trades.


Ruth Barrett


In the early 1980’s health issues caused by the polluted air of Los Angeles, forced Zsuzsanna to sell her shop and turn over the “Susan B. Anthony Coven Number One” to Ruth Barrett another Priestess and leader.  She then moved to Oakland near San Francisco where the air quality was much better.  There she formed a new coven called the “Laughing Goddess”, but sadly this coven failed to succeed, due in part to conflicting internal politics.  Rather than start another coven, Zsuzsanna then returned to work as an author, speaker, teacher and media personality.


Today Zsuzsanna still lives in San Francisco and is the author of numerous books, one play and several DVD's, as well as sponsoring the “Dianic University Online” an online school for Dianic Wicca and Goddess studies for women.  She continues to lead rituals and give lectures while teaching classes and presenting workshops, at the same time as writing articles and defending women’s issues in publications across the country.  She had hosted her own cable TV show called 13th Heaven” and is the director of the Women’s Spirituality Forum, a nonprofit religious and educational organization sponsoring online classes, monthly lectures, women’s spiritual retreats, goddess festivals and annual spiral dances on Halloween.


Over the years Zsuzsanna has influenced and inspired many other feminist teachers and writers in the Goddess movement.  One of her early pupils was Starhawk, who later became prominent as a woman’s leader and author in her own right.  In 2003, the California Institute of Integral Studies recognized Zsuzsanna’s contribution to the advancement of women’s spirituality, and honored her as a “Foremother” of the Women’s Spirituality Movement.  Indeed it was Zsuzsanna who created the Women’s Spirituality Movement.  Her vision for the future is one of “Global Goddess Consciousness”, acknowledging the oneness of all as children of one Mother, the planet Earth.





The Feminist Book of Lights and Shadows, 1975

Selene, the Most Famous Bull-Leaper on Earth, 1976

The Holy Book of Women’s Mysteries, 1989

Grandmother Time, 1989

Grandmother Moon, 1991

The Goddess in the Office, 1993

The Goddess in the Bedroom, 1995

Summoning the Fates:  A Woman's Guide to Destiny, 1999

Summoning the Fates, 2003

Celestial Wisdom (with Diana Paxson), 2003

Rastadogs, 2003

Selene, the Most Famous Bull-Leaper on Earth, 2011 - Amason CreateSpace (self-published)

Goddess Gets to Work, 2012 - Amason CreateSpace (self-published)

Z's Easy Tarot, 2012 - Amason CreateSpace (self-published)

Summoning the Fates:  A Guide to Destiny and Sacred Transformation, 2013 - Amason CreateSpace (self-published)

My Dark Sorbid Past As A Heterosexual, 2014 - Amason CreateSpace (self-published)




The Rise of the Fates:  A Woman's Passion Play, 1976





Penguin Hutchinson Reference Library Copyright (c) 1996 Helicon Publishing and Penguin Books Ltd

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-paganism - By Shelley Rabinovitch

The Witch Book - The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, Wicca, and Neo-paganism  -  By Raymond Buckland

The Encyclopedia of Witches &Witchcraft  - By Rosemary Ellen Guiley

Encyclopedia of Wicca & Witchcraft  - By Raven Grimassi

Drawing down the Moon  -  by Margot Adler

Dianic University Online”  -


  My grateful thanks to Zsuzsanna who has verified and corrected to above in a recent personal email.



Written and compiled on the 14th March 2008  ©  George Knowles



Best wishes and Blessed Be



Site Contents - Links to all Pages


Home Page


A Universal Message:


Let there be peace in the world  -   Where have all the flowers gone?


About me:

My Personal PageMy Place in England / My Family Tree (Ancestry)


Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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