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The Sabbats

Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)

Written and compiled by George Knowles

Imbolc - Candlemas

Imbolc (Christianised as "Candlemas") was one of the four Greater Sabbats of the witch’s calendar. A cross-quarter fire festival, Imbolc falls between “Yule” - the Winter Solstice, and “Ostara” - the Spring Equinox. Celebrated in the Northern Hemisphere between the 01st and 3rd of February, in the Southern Hemisphere the equivalent Sabbat is Lammas. The main purpose of Imbolc is a celebration of the returning Sun, which daily grows stronger reducing the night. As such, the main feature of this festival is the lighting of fires and candles in sympathetic imitation of the Sun’s growing light. 

Imbolc of old was traditionally a time of purification, both physically and mentally. After the enforced indoor living of the dark winter months when the home was shutdown to guard against the cold, it came as a welcome relief for many people to re-open the shutters and welcome in the growing light. While we are still in the grip of the last ravages of winter, plant life is beginning to revive shooting new buds, and farm animals, sheep in particular, are beginning to producing new lambs adding to the livestock. As the Sun grows in strength, so a new cycle of life returns to the earth.

In pagan mythology Imbolc marks the recovery of the Goddess as she sleeps on after the birth of the Sun God, and she acknowledges his growing maturity as he gains strength to become the new light of the year. After his rest and recuperation during winter’s annual hibernation, the Sun god’s light begins to purify the earth. Although he is still young he is also lusty and his growing power can be felt in the lengthening of the days. As his power grows and warms the earth so too does the early beginnings of spring appear as nature rebirths itself again. 

The name Imbolc is derived from the Gaelic word “Oimelc” (which means “ewes milk”), and appropriately so for this is the lambing season a time when many of our herd animals have either given birth or their wombs are expectantly swollen. Imbolc is also known by various other names, including: Bridget’s Day (Pagan), Imbolgc Brigantia (Caledonni), Disting (Teutonic), Lupercalia (Roman – 15th Feb), Groundhog Day (America), Candlelaria (Mexican), the Snowdrop Festival, the Feast of Torches, the Feast of Lights, the Feast of Pan and Feast of the Waxing Light. However when Christianity arrived, as happened to many of the old pagan celebrations, Imbolc was re-invented and renamed “Candlemas” as a symbolic reminder of the purification of the Virgin Mary.  In Scotland Inbolc is known as: Là Fhèill Brìghde, in Ireland as: Lá Fhéile Bríde, and in Wales as: Gwyl Ffraed.

Fire is the most important aspect of this celebration, for it was also a day dedicated to the pagan Goddess Bridget (also known as Brighid, Bríde, Brigit or Brìd). Bridget is a triple aspect Goddess (revered as Maiden, Mother and Crone), who as a Maiden ruled over - Poetry, Writing, Inspiration and Music, as a Mother over - Healing, Midwifery and Herbalism, and as a Crone over - Fire and the working arts of the Smithy. Again here Christianity intervened, but instead of doing away with her as a pagan Goddess, they canonized her as “St. Bridget” the patron Saint of Ireland who founded a church and monastery at Kildare. It was here according to legend that the Priestesses of the Goddess constantly tended a sacred flame in her honour.

“All thoughts, all passions, all delights

Whatever stirs this mortal frame

All are but ministers of Love

And feed his sacred flame” 

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834)

In Western Europe, Imbolc was time to start preparing the fields for the first planting, and to bless the crop seeds saved and stored from the last harvest. It was also a time to consecrate and bless all their agricultural tools ready for the planting season. The success of the new planting season was of great importance for by this time the winter stores of food were beginning to run out, so rituals were performed at Imbolc to ensure a steady supply of food until the first harvest was brought in later at Lammas (August 1st). One old tradition was to drag a decorated plough around the fields followed by the villagers dropping pieces of cheese and bread into the newly turned furrows as offerings to the nature spirits.  As well as the seeds, Corn dollies saved from the last harvest would also be planted in the fields to encourage new growth.

Ox-drawn Plough

Another old custom was to make “Bridget’s Crosses” woven from leftover wheat stalks. These would be hung in barns and over doorways in the home, and over beds to encourage the blessings of the Goddess. Similar charm crosses were also made and exchanged as symbols of protection and prosperity for the coming year. The making of “Bridget Dollies” was another old tradition fashioned from leftover wheat stalks. These were made and dressed in women’s clothing, then placed in baskets of white flowers with a wand, candle or other phallic object to encourage fertility. Placed near the front door of the home, or sometimes near the hearth, a white candle would be lit nearby and left to burn as an invitation for Bridget to visit through the night and favour them with her blessings.

A Bridget’s Cross Charm Pendant

Imbolc is all about new beginnings. On the eve of Imbolc all the home fires would have been put out, cleaned out, and re-lit symbolic of the returning light of the Sun, and in keeping with this symbolism, a broom made from the three sacred woods symbolic of the three-fold aspects of the Goddess (the handle from Ash, the brush from Birch twigs and the binding cord from Willow) would be placed by the front door to symbolize sweeping out the old and welcoming in the new. During the evening an especially large candle would have been lit while the family gathered around ready for a feast, during which plans and promises to be kept through the new season would be discussed and debated until it burned out. It was also customary at Sunset to ritually light a candle in each room of the home in honour of the Sun’s return.

After the rise of Christianity in England, the old Pagan custom of lighting candles at Imbolc was incorporated into the Roman Catholic Church and renamed Candlemas. On the eve of Candlemas, candles would be distributed among the congregation and paraded around the church in a Festival of Light. After a service to honour the purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, more candles to be used in the church during the following year would also be blessed and consecrated by the priest. The church practice of celebrating Candlemas continued in England until the 16th century, at which time during the Reformation it was discontinued being considered to closely allied with Pagan practices and magical accessories.

The use of candles in a 'Festival of Light' never died out however, for in 1951 after the repeal of the old antiquated witchcraft laws still being enforced in England, there was a resurgence of interest in old Pagan practices. This was spearheaded by Gerald B. Gardner who founded the contemporary form of Witchcraft known as the Gardnerian Tradition, and quickly followed by numerous other traditions. Common among all such traditions are the initiation rituals, many of which take place at Imbolc - it being a traditional time of new beginnings. Today one of the main features of many coven initiations is a procession of candlelight leading the initiate into the circle from which their new beginnings as a Witch takes place.

Imbolc then is a time to spring clean both your mental and physical abilities, to take stock of your life and make a fresh start. By planning ahead and planting new seeds (ideas) for the future, who knows what new opportunities will grow from them. As the Sun grows stronger in the sky, so too should you look forward with optimism; and as your seeds (ideas) mature, so may you realise your hopes and dreams.

“I feel again a spark of that ancient flame”.

Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro) 70–19 BC  -Aeneid  bk. 4, l. 23


Written and compiled on the 7th January 2009 © George Knowles

Best wishes and Blessed Be


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Wicca & Witchcraft


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Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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