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Written and compiled by George Knowles

During the 17th and 18th centuries there was much migration from continental Europe when whole families seeking to flee the hardships, famine and poverty of their own lands set their sights on the adventure and prosperity offered in the new lands of hope and glory called America.  Many of the German settlers who colonized the interior of Pennsylvania also brought with them their Old World beliefs in Witchcraft and Magick.  Due to the lands resemblance to their former homes in Europe, many of them settled in the rich rural areas of York, Dauphin, Lancaster, Schuylkill, Carbon and Reading, which over time became commonly known as the counties of the “Pennsylvania Dutch” (Dutch, a corruption of “Deutsch” meaning German).

The early Pennsylvania Dutch peoples were proud family orientated folk-people, deeply religious, and fiercely defensive of their traditional ways of life.  They kept to themselves and were suspicious of outsiders, and even retained their German language.  This over time and through necessity became mixed with English to form their particular Pennsylvania Dutch dialect.  They also continued to practice their own form of traditional Witchcraft and magick.  As much of their witchcraft and magick was centered on herbs and healing, they enlisted the aid of local Indians to learn about and find native roots and herbs for use in medicinal recipes.

Observing the Indians powwows, their meetings for ceremonial dance and conference purposes, they discovered that like themselves, the Indians used charms and incantations for healing.  Impressed with the Indians methods of driving out evil spirits, they adopted the term “powwowing” to refer to their own magickal healings.  Powwowing has survived through the advance of time and is still practiced today, and while some of the charms and incantations used date back to ancient times, many contain Biblical and Kabalistic elements that can be adapted for modern-day use.

Of the old pioneers to emigrate from Germany and settle in Pennsylvania, John George Hohman is of particular interest concerning powwowing.  Hohman, his wife Catherine and son Caspar arrived on a ship from Hamburg, Germany in 1799 and settling in Rosenthal, Reading, began their lives in America in “indenture service.  A farmer called Fretz who lived in the Bedminister Township purchased the Hohmann’s services.  Later, he formed the acquaintance of a Nicholas Buck for whom he formed a strong attachment.  Arrangements were made to allow Hohman to pay off the rest of his indenture with Nicholas Buck while his wife and son worked for Mr. Fretz.

Hohmann was a devout Roman Catholic and a great believer in faith healing, and once free from indenture began to collect various charms and herbal remedies, as well as collating those passed down through centuries of oral tradition and published them in a handbook called “The Long Lost Friend” (1819).  This allowed Hohman to achieve some modest financial success, for it quickly became one of two “Bibles” on powwowing (the other being an anonymous book called the “Seventh Book of Moses”), both of which could be found in virtually every Pennsylvania Dutch household.

In “The Long Lost Friend”, Hohman mixed magick and healing formulas gleaned from a variety of sources, including Germany, England and Egypt, some dating back to antiquity.  It was not a book of “hexes”, and Hohman emphasizes that a “hex” was a spell, curse or bewitchment cast by a Witch, commonly with evil intent, though it could be use for either good or bad purposes and should be used for healing not for destroying.  In it he also included the wisdom of the Gypsies and the Kabbalah, as well as testimonials of his own successes.  In his introduction he states:

“There are many in America who believe in neither hell nor heaven, but in Germany there are not so many of these persons found.  I, Hohman, ask:  Who can immediately banish the wheal, or mortification?  I reply, and I, Hohman, say:  All this is done by the Lord.  Therefore, a hell and a heaven must exist, and I think very little of any who dares deny it”.

Hohman also promised his readers that:

“Whoever carries this book with him, is safe from all his enemies, visible or invisible, and whoever has this book cannot die without the holy corpse of Jesus Christ, nor drowned (sic) in any water, nor burn up in any fire, nor can any unjust sentence be passed upon him.  So help me”.

In the book he offers the following charm to prevent witches from bewitching cattle, or to stop evil spirits from tormenting people in their sleep at night.  It should be written down and placed either in the stable or on the bedstead:

“Trotter Head, I forbid thee my house and premises, I forbid thee my horse and cow-stable, I forbid thee my bedstead, that thou mayest not breathe upon me, breathe into some other house, until thou hast ascended every hill, until thou hast counted every fence post, and until thou hast crossed every water.  And thus dear day may come again into my house, in the name of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.  Amen”.   

The second “bible” of powwowing is the “Seventh Book of Moses”.  This is a mixture of material take from the Talmud, Kabbalah and the Old Testament.  It explains how to break a hex by wearing an amulet containing specially selected herbs wrapped in parchment paper inscribed with biblical verses or charms.  In another method it tells how the hexed person should avoid direct sunlight, to stay in-doors when the moon is full, to cover the ears at the sound of a bell, and to never listen to the crowing of a cock.  Most family households in the Pennsylvania Dutch “hex belt” (as these areas became known) had copies of both powwowing “bibles”, and anyone could use them.  However the charms were believed more effective when prescribed or recited by a “bona fide” practitioner.

The most skilled of powwowing practitioners are born into it, inheriting such occult abilities as healing, clairvoyance and precognition.  According to tradition, the “seventh son of a seventh son” inherits special powers, and is thought to be the most powerful, but both men and women can be practitioners.  Powwowers start their training at an early age, and are taught only by family members of the opposite sex.  They use a variety of techniques to help their clients, such as the laying on of hands, incantations and signs (such as the sign of the cross).  Some specialize in charms and amulets, while others may use special herbs, potions and powders.  One well-reputed powwower from the turn of the century was called Charles W. Rice.  He lived in York, where he specialized in curing blindness with a potion he called “Sea Monster Tears”.  This he dispensed at $2.50 a drop.

The most common of the powwower’s charms are the “Himmels-briefs” (heavens letters).  These are basically a guarantee of protection written by the powwower on a piece of parchment paper in biblical verse.  It is then hung up in the home or barn, or carried on the person it was written for.  They can be written to protect the home, animals and people from all sorts of harm and disaster, be they natural or un-natural.  Disbelievers were told:  Whosoever doubts the truth of a Himmels-briefs, may attach a copy of the brief to the neck of a dog and fire upon it, he will then be convinced of its truthfulness”.  Himmels-briefs typically cost from $25.00 to hundreds of dollars depending on the power and reputation of the powwower and the specifics of the charm.  They were particularly popular with the soldiers of World War I, who carried them into battle for protection against injury and death.

Most powwowers work quietly and attract their clients by word of mouth and reputation.  Some work at it as a sideline to their main business, seeing clients only in the evenings or at weekends, others work at it full-time.  To many it is considered unethical to charge fees for their services, and instead accept “voluntary contributions” though they may suggest appropriate amounts for specific services.  Most will also help those clients who cannot pay, trusting that grateful clients will return when funds are available.

Today the secrets of Powwowing remain very much a Pennsylvania Dutch family tradition.  However, Silver Ravenwolf a modern day neo-pagan, author and founder of the Black Forest Circle and Seminary, is also a trained practitioner of Pow-Wow, and has published her own version of powwowing in a book called:  Hex Craft:  Dutch Country Pow-wow Magick” (lewellyn Publications; 1st edition - May 1995).




The Encyclopedia of Witches & Witchcraft  - By Rosemary Ellen Guiley

An ABC of Witchcraft Past and Present  - By Doreen Valiente

A copy of the The Long Lost Friend” can be downloaded free from here:

First published on the 04th  March 2007 © George Knowles  -  Updated on the 18th May 2006

Best Wishes and Blessed Be


Site Contents - Links to all Pages


Home Page


A Universal Message:


Let there be peace in the world  -   Where have all the flowers gone?


About me:

My Personal PageMy Place in England / My Family Tree (Ancestry)


Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /  Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /    


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:

(Our Ancestors)


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagorasParacelsus /  Abramelin the Mage Archimedes AgrippaSocrates  /  AristotleAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” /  



A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Aidan A KellyAleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen DuncanHermann Löher /  Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich Kramer and the Malleus MaleficarumIdries ShahIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  James Sprenger and the Malleus Maleficarum” /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /  Lambert Daneau /  Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithPatricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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