Merry we meet  -  Merry we meet  -  Merry we meet


Welcome to







(Part 2)


(Paths, Covens, Churches and Organizations)


Written and compiled by George Knowles. 

Wicca is a wonderfully diverse and contemporary spiritual religion.  Many of its traditions are based on and reviving the ancient pagan, pre-Christian religions of Europe.  There are many differing paths and traditions contained within Wicca, each with it’s own brand of ritual and magic.  But perhaps the single most common theme among all these traditions is an overriding reverence for life, nature and the environment as seen through the Goddess and God.  Below I have listed some of the main Paths, Covens, Churches and Organizations that come under the banner of Wicca:



Witches here, witches there,

Witches everywhere.

White witch, Black witch,

Good witch, Wicked witch,

Who can tell the difference?


Contemporary witch, Coven witch,

Traditional witch, Kitchen witch,

Hereditary witch, Heath witch,

Who and what are they?


Gardnerian witch, Eclectic witch,

Alexandrian witch, Solitary witch,

Nordic witch, Celtic witch,

Feri witch, Wicca witch.


But which 'Witch' is which?


(George Knowles)

(Part 1)


Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca / 


Part 2

Gardnerian WiccaGeorgian Tradition /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch)Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-WitaSeax-Wica ShamanismSolitaryStregaSylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /

Gardnerian Wicca 

After the repeal of England’s last antiquated witchcraft laws in 1951, there began a resurgence of interest in the old religion, and witchcraft in particular.  Gerald Brosseau Gardner, who later that year became director of the newly opened “Museum of Magic and Witchcraft” in Castletown, Isle of Man, spearheaded this resurgence.  Gardner started to establish covens, using the basic ideas and rituals he had written about in his fictional book “High Magic’s Aid”, published in 1949. 

In 1953 Gardner initiated into his coven Doreen Valiente.  It was Doreen who helped Gardner reshape the structure of his covens, by re-writing and embellishing his “Book of Shadows”, thus establishing a new tradition and calling it Gardnerian Wicca.  Both Gardner and Doreen were greatly influenced by the teachings of Charles Godfrey Leland, and in time the tradition took on elements of Italian Witchcraft.  The famous “Charge of the Goddess” written by Doreen, was clearly inspired by his work. 

Other aspects of the tradition influenced by Leland’s view of Italian Witchcraft are, The full moon gatherings, The worship of the goddess and god consort, The cakes and wine rituals and celebrations, and Ritual nudity. 

Today the tradition is mainly coven based, and follows an extremely traditional path with a hierarchical grade structure unsuitable for solitary practice.  The Gardnerian covens of today still adhere to the old time values of secrecy, and new initiates are pledged to take oaths upon initiation.

The Georgian Tradition

The Georgian Tradition of Wicca was founded in California in 1971 by George “Pat” Patterson and two women called Zanoni Silverknife and Lady Tanith.  In 1972 the Universal Life Church chartered the Georgians as The Church of Wicca of Bakersfield, then later in 1980 it was reorganised and re-chartered as The Georgian Church. 

The Georgian tradition is an eclectic mix of Gardnerian, Alexandrian and British Traditional practices in that it is an initiatory line and oath-bound.  Many of the rituals are similar to those published in various books such as the Farrar's Eight Sabbats for Witches and The Witches' Way, as well as the privately distributed version of what was later published as Ed Fitch's Grimoire of the Shadows.  The Georgians are God - Goddess oriented and both religious and magical, they also celebrate the eight Sabbats and encouraged members to learn from all available sources.

The Henge of Keltria

Founded in 1987 by early members of the Ar nDraiocht Fein (ADF), an American Druid Order founded in 1983 by Philip Isaac Bonewits, a number of members grew with the direction and leadership of the Order.  Wanting a more clearly defined “Celtic” inspired path to follow, a break-a-way faction led by Tony Taylor and others formed the “Henge of Keltria” as an Order dedicated to Celtic Druidism. 

Eight years later in 1995, the “Henge of Keltria” incorporated as a 501(c) 3 non-profit organization and has since expanded year on year.  It now has members all across the United States, and internationally in Canada, Europe, South America and Africa. 

Working within a framework of Celtic Druidism as defined by a Council of Elders and administered by a Board of Trustees, members of the Henge are dedicated to protecting and preserving Mother Earth, honouring the Ancestors, revering the Spirits of Nature and worshipping the Celtic Gods and Goddesses. 

The structural framework of the Henge is based on thirteen Core Beliefs and Ethics formulated by the Council of Elders, which are: 

1.    We believe in divinity as it is manifest in the Celtic pantheons and that Polytheism (the belief and worship of more than one deity), Pantheism (the belief that God is everything and the material world is one and the same thing in which God is present) and Animism (the belief that nature has a soul, and that all things in nature, i.e. trees, mountains and streams, all have souls or consciousness), are all valid theistic perceptions of the pantheon.

2.    We believe that nature is the embodiment of the Gods.

3.    We believe that natural Law reflects the will of the Gods.

4.    We believe that all life is Sacred, and should neither be harmed nor taken without deliberation or regard.

5.    We believe in the immortality of the Spirit.

6.    We believe that our purpose is to gain wisdom through experience, and that we may undergo several incarnations to facilitate the variety of experience necessary to gain that wisdom.

7.    We believe that learning is an ongoing process, and should be encouraged at all ages.

8.    We believe that morality is a matter of personal conviction based upon self-respect and equally respect for others.

9.    We believe that evil is not a matter of inheritance but of intent, therefore, actions are not in themselves evil.  Rather, it is through the intent behind actions that evil manifests.

10.     We believe that nothing is absolute, and all things, even the Gods, have their dark sides.

11.     We believe that every individual has the right to pursue knowledge and wisdom through his or her chosen path.

12.     We believe in honouring the Gods through the cyclical celebrations of our Celtic Ancestors.

13.     We believe in a living religion able to adapt to a changing environment; therefore, we recognize that our beliefs may undergo change as our tradition grows.

The main aim of the Henge is to provide a religious and spiritual framework through which people can reach their full potential.  In this, special emphasis is placed on spiritual development through ritual participation, mentored training and their own resource materials. 

Members of the Henge progress through three grades of initiation called rings, a symbolic name derived from the rings of a tree as a measure of its growth, and thus is used as a measure of an initiates attainments and progress within the Henge.  The three rings are named after three of the sacred trees:  the Ring of the Birch, the Ring of the Yew and the Ring of the Oak.  The highest ring, that of Oak, also has three grades—Hawthorn, Rowan, and Mistletoe.  Advancements are based on time, knowledge and service to either an affiliated grove or the Henge itself.  Special provisions are made for those transferring from other Neo-pagan paths, so that those with several years of prior training and experience need not begin at the bottom. 

Affiliated groves of the Henge are granted Charters to freely compose and perform their own rituals to suit their own particular needs, criteria and focus, provided that such remain compatible with the above Core Beliefs and Ethics. 

Keltrian Druids celebrate the 8 main Feasts (Sabbats) throughout the year, namely the “Solstices and Equinoxes” marking the cycle of the sun, and the “Cross-Quarter days” marking the agricultural seasons.  These are: 

The Feast of Death (Samhain - 1st Nov)
The Feast of Rebirth (Yule - the Winter Solstice - 21st Dec)
The Feast of Stirring (Imbolc – 2nd Feb)
The Feast of Flowing (Ostara - the Spring Equinox – 21st Mar)
The Feast of Greening (Beltaine – 1st May)
The Feast of Ripening (Litha - the Summer Solstice – 21st Jun)
The Feast of First Harvest (Lughnasadh – 1st Aug)
The Feast of Second Harvest (Mabon - the Autumn Equinox – 21st Sept

They also celebrate two lunar rites called “The Mistletoe Rite” and “The Vervain Rite”. 

The Mistletoe Rite – In ancient times Druids collected Mistletoe on the 6th night of the moon (roughly just before the first quarter).  Since mistletoe was known as “all heal” one of the themes of this rite is healing.  This theme extends to healing of the community through a sharing of food and drink.  The Sun and Moon are in a position of equilibrium at this time, so they also see this as a time of balance, and a time to seek balance in their own lives. 

The Vervain Rite – This rite is also based on ancient Druidic practices, when of old Vervain was gathered at a time when neither sun nor moon was in the sky.  This usually occurs during each evening, except when the moon is full.  This rite is generally celebrated around the 3rd quarter, which allows time for the performance during the evening hours.  It also places the rite opposite to the Mistletoe Rite in the lunar cycle.  Vervain is said to be of aid in working magic, as such, the Vervain Rite is their time for working magic.  The purpose of magic in a Druidic sense is more like prayer, in which it is used to help effect change in their lives and others.  In this the rite may involve contemplation, meditation, ritual or ecstatic dance. 

The Henge of Keltria have published a book:  The Henge of Keltria Book of Ritual (see, and also publish a quarterly periodical called Henge Happenings

Current Address: 

The Henge of Keltria

2350 Spring Road,


Smyrna, GA 30080 

Web site:
Email contact:

Hereditary Witchcraft

This refers to those people that can trace Craft practice back on their family tree in an unbroken family tradition passed down through the generations by their ancestors from the ancient Pagan Mysteries, and were taught the secrets of the Craft by a living relative (my mother’s grandmother’s sister’s cousin was a Witch, doesn't count).  Many Hereditary Witches do not consider their traditions Wiccan, and some admit that they only use the term Wicca because of what they had read about Gardnerian beliefs and practices, which seemed to fit more or less closely with their own beliefs and practices.  Hereditary traditions are also often referred to as FamTrad, or Family Traditionalists i.e. a Tradition that has passed down within the family and hence by hereditary descent.

The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn 

The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was originally founded in England in 1888 by Dr. William Wynn Westcott, Dr. W.R. Woodman and S. L. MacGregor Mathers.  The Order was based on a cipher manuscript said to have belonged to an old German occult order.  Aleister Crowley was perhaps the most well known member of the order, but membership also included such notables as W.B. Yeats and A.E. Waite.  During the height of the Orders success in the late 1890’s, it is thought to have possessed the greatest known repository of Western magical knowledge. 

The Golden Dawn was very much a Ceremonial Magic Order, providing training instruction on three magical systems:  the Key of Solomon; Abra-Melin and Enochian magic.  Material was also incorporated from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, William Blake’s Prophetic Books and the Chaldean Oracles.  Some of the texts included Christian elements and members circulated various Catholic and Anglican writings and sermons.  Instruction was also given in Astral travel, Scrying, Alchemy, Geomancy, the Tarot and Astrology.  By 1903 the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn began to break up due to irreparable schisms among its members, and was followed for a number of years by two offshoot Orders, the Stella Matutina and the Alpha et Omega. 

In 1933 Israel Regardie, a one-time secretary of Aleister Crowley, joined the Stella Matutina and became an Adept in 1934.  Regardie quickly realized the Order was dying a slow death and felt that the leaders were more interested in self-glorification than in understanding and learning from the basic materials.  After much soul searching in regard to his Oath of Secrecy, in 1937 Regardie made the decision to publish the Order’s lectures and rituals in his book, The Golden Dawn.  By doing so he kept the teachings of the Golden Dawn from being lost forever.  While vilified at the time, today Regardie is often credited with keeping the traditional teachings of the Golden Dawn alive, by insuring that anyone who is interested has access to it. 

One of Regardie’s primary objectives had been to preserve the teachings of the Golden Dawn, but he also set himself another task.  As an Adept of the Golden Dawn, he felt it was down to him to bring a valid branch of the initiatory lineage of the Order to America.  He waited patiently for four decades before he was able to achieve his goal.  A couple in Georgia were inspired to build a Rosicrucian Vault, the powerful ritual chamber required to pass-on the Adept Initiation.  At the same time two magicians (one on the east coast of the United States and one on the west coast), unknown to each other or to the Georgia couple, came to be ready to receive that Initiation.  Regardie was the connecting link between them, and using his title and order motto A. M. A. G., he had the right to confer the Initiation in such a Vault.  In one remarkable weekend, Regardie presided over two Initiations into the Inner Order, the first and the last that he ever performed, and with the following oath repeated by the initiates, the Lamp of the Keryx passed into American hands: 

“I further promise and swear that with the Divine Permission, I will from this day forward, apply myself to the Great Work, which is:  to purify and exalt my Spiritual Nature so that with the Divine Aid I may at length attain to be more than human, and thus gradually raise and unite to my Higher and Divine Genius, and that in this event I will not abuse the great power entrusted to me”. 

The American Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) in its present form was founded in Columbus, Georgia in 1977.  Since then the H.O.G.D. has continued to grow and in 1988 was incorporated as a non-profit organization by Charles "Chic" Cicero in Florida.  The function of the H.O.G.D. today is the advancement of philosophical and spiritual education, while continuing to preserve that body of knowledge known as Hermetism or the Western Esoteric Tradition. 

The modern H.O.G.D. follows the traditional hierarchical structure of the original Golden Dawn of England, with a ruling triad of Officers known as the “G.H. Chiefs” who govern both the First or Outer Order as well as the Second or Inner Order (known as the Ordo Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis or the RR et AC).  The H.O.G.D. also follows the traditional teachings, grade structure and ethos as the original Order.  Although it currently has a worldwide membership with temples in several countries, it remains rather private and membership is by invitation only. 

The H.O.G.D. system of magic is designed to teach its students both abstract esoteric concepts as well as the more practical applications of Ceremonial Magic.  Egyptian, Judeo-Christian, Greek, Gnostic, Rosicrucian and Masonic elements can all be found within the teachings of the H.O.G.D.  The curriculum includes the study of Kabalah, Astrology, Divination, Alchemy, Egyptian magic, Scrying and Enochian magic. 

Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) 

The traditional British Witch, a Kitchen Witch is a person that practices from home by hearth and concentrates on the practical side of religion, magick, earth mysteries and the elements.  Normally he or she is a solitary practitioner and does not belong to a coven or particular tradition, relying instead on self-study, personal discernment, and intuition.  In many ways the Kitchen Witch is akin to the old village Witch who lived a solitary life but was called upon for spells and healing potions by the local folk. 

The Kitchen Witch commonly works with a familiar spirit, and incorporates the use of herbs, trance, and shamanic techniques such as drumming to induce altered states of consciousness.  It’s a more convenient form of practice for those who have limited space and resources like today’s suburban and busy professional city witches.  Their focus is on practicality, the use of magick in the home and in the workplace with convenient rituals that include readily available ingredients available at short notice, and on a tight budget. 

The Kitchen Witch is usually very involved with working for the ecology of the planet, and tries to use only natural objects and materials for ritual and magical purposes.

Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition 

The Minoan Brotherhood, a Gay Men’s tradition of Witchcraft was established in New York by the late Lord Gwydion (Eddie Buczynski), a classical scholar, a Gardnerian Elder and a founder of the New York Welsh tradition in the mid 1970's.  At about the same time, Carol Bulzone (Lady Miw) of the Enchantments Occult shop in New York and Lady Rhea of the Magickal Realms Occult shop in the Bronx established the Minoan Sisterhood, a similar but Gay Woman’s tradition of Witchcraft.  The Minoan tradition consists of three branches, the Minoan Brotherhood (gay men) the Minoan Sisterhood (gay women) and the Cult of the Double Axe/Cult of Rhea (gay men and women). 

The initial mother coven of the tradition, of the Minoan Brotherhood was called Knossos Grove, and was founded by Eddie Buczynski in New York in 1975, from where it quickly spread across North America.  The Minoan Sisterhood branch founded later by Lady Miw for women was based on the same initial research and teaching of Eddie Buczynski and his work with Cretan god forms and mythology.  While the sisterhood branch grew quickly from its beginnings, it remained largely confined to the New York area of North America.  The Cult of the Double Axe/Cult of Rhea brings the other two branches together on mutual ground, but to be a member of the Cult of the Double Axe/Cult of Rhea, one needs to be a properly initiated member of either of the other two branches, the Cult having no initiations or elevations of its own. 

The Minoan Brotherhood and Sisterhood branches remain exclusively for Gay men and women to explore traditional ritual Witchcraft, rituals that foster a similar, though Gay, sexual mysticism and sense of personal empowerment, as do other traditional traditions of Wicca and Witchcraft.  As the founder Eddie Buczynski was a Gardnerian initiate, the Minoan rituals are roughly Gardnerian, with changes to accommodate a different core mythology and ritual custom.  Imagery and deities are those of Ancient Crete and Mycenae, but their working tools and uses are virtually identical to those of British traditional Wicca. 

Nordic Paganism 

Nordic Paganism includes those traditions that worship the Norse pantheon of deities and stress conservative values of honour, honesty, courage and duty to one’s family, kith and kin.  In the 1970’s a number of Norse Pagan groups sprang into existence almost simultaneously and independently of one another in America, England and Iceland.  Many adherents to Norse Paganism are attracted by the emphasis on blood ties and genetics, the warrior ethic and Norse symbology.  Norse Pagans recognize both branches of the Norse pantheon, the Aesir (e.g. Odin, Thor, Tiu and Balder) and the Vanir (e.g. Njord, Frey, and Freya). 

Norse festivals center on the seasonal equinoxes and solstices, and holidays such as Ragnar’s Day.  Heavier emphasis is placed on skill mastery and shamanism than on magick and meditation.  There are a few extreme right-wing Norse Pagan groups who believe they have founded a religion upon the Aryan race; and while some do include neo-Nazis, most Norse Pagans consider these people a fringe element not connected to their religion.  Norse traditions are also known as Teutonic traditions.

The Pagan Federation

The Pagan Federation (UK) is the leading organization supporting Paganism in the U.K., and founded in 1971 to provide information on Paganism by countering the many misconceptions about the religion.  The Federation works for the rights of Pagans to worship freely without censure as decreed in “Article 18” of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: 

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public and in private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance”. 

The Pagan Federation publishes a quarterly magazine called the “Pagan Dawn”, formerly known as “The Wiccan”, an influential periodical founded in 1968 by one of the Federations founding members, the late “John Score”.  Under his guidance in the late 60’s, the Wiccan rose to prominence in both Britain and the United States as one of the worlds leading journals on Paganism.  In collaboration with groups from Britain and the US, Score then played a key role in the formation of the “Pagan Way” in America, and in 1971 its counter part in Britain the “Pagan Front”.  The Pagan Front however, evolved separately from the Pagan Way, and eventually changed its name to the Pagan Federation.  The Wiccan remained the means of dissemination for the Pagan Front/Federation, before changing its name to the Pagan Dawn. 

Through-out the year, the Pagan Federation sponsors and arranges private (members-only) meetings, as well as public orientated events up and down the country.  The highlight of these events is the Annual Conference held normally in November, which attracts an international gathering.  The aim of the Federation is to provide information and contact between Pagan groups and genuine seekers of the Old Religion.  To promote contact and dialogue between the various branches of Paganism in Britain and Europe, as well as other Pagan organizations world-wide, and to provide practical support and effective information to members of the public, the media, public bodies and government administrations. 

The Three Principles of the Pagan Federation are: 

Love for and Kinship with Nature.  Reverence for the life force and its ever-renewing cycles of life and death. 

The Pagan Ethic: “If it harms none, do what thou wilt”.  This is a positive morality expressing the belief in individual responsibility for discovering one's own true nature and developing it fully, in harmony with the outer world and community. 

Recognition of the Divine, which transcends gender by acknowledging both the female and male aspect of Deity. 

Membership to the Federation is restricted to persons over the age of 18 years, who agree with the above Three Principles.


Pecti-Wita is presumed an old hereditary Scottish tradition that first came to the attention of the general public when mentioned by Raymond Buckland in his book:  Buckland’s Complete Book of Witchcraft” (Llewellyn Publications – 1986).  In his book, Buckland detailed many different varieties of Wicca and such was the response he received for more information, he later published full details in another book:  Scottish Witchcraft: The History and Magick of the Picks” (Llewellyn Publications – 1991).  The information in his book was supposedly provided by a Wiccan teacher Aidan Breac (1897 – 1989). 

Breac was a Scottish Highlander, born and raised into a hereditary Craft family on an island off the northwest coast of Scotland.  He was a descendant of the Carnonacae tribe of the Picts who lived in the northwest of what is now Ross and Cromarty Counties.  Breac, a family man but without children for the last thirty years of his life, devoted himself to teaching the Pecti Wita tradition to others. 

Pecti Wita is different from many other forms of Wicca, in that it is a solitary tradition.  It doesn’t practice circle consecration, or the formalized rituals of most other Wiccan traditions.  The basic tools of the Pecti Witan is the dirk and staff, and rather than casting a circle, he or she simply “centers” themselves.  Magick is very much a part of the tradition and there are some celebrations of the seasons namely at Samhuinn, Feill-Fionnain, Bealltainn, and Feill-Sheathain.  Healing is also an important part of this tradition as is herbal lore and divination. 

Pecti Wita is perhaps closer to the traditional “Kitchen Witch” of the British Isles than to the more formalized traditions of Wicca.  Until it was made public by Buckland, Pecti Wita was found mainly in Scotland and parts of Canada, but in recent years has expanded and is now practiced in many other parts of the world.


After much debate about Pecti Wita on several British e-mail lists.  I have found that the vast majority of Scottish Witches I have spoken too rubbish and reject all claims made by Raymond Buckland about Pecti Witta as a made up figment of his imagination similar to his Seax-Wica.  They point out that nobody to-date has been able to confirm the existence of an "Aidan Breac" and no records of a birth certificate has ever been found or materialized?


Seax-Wica was the inspiration of Raymond Buckland.  In 1973 fed-up with the egotism and power trips exhibited by others within the craft, he decided to leave the Gardnerian tradition feeling it no longer met his religious needs.  He developed and founded Seax-Wica as a new tradition at Samhain that same year.  While he claimed no direct descent from Saxon times, he chose a Saxon background as a foundation for the new tradition with "Woden and Freya" as its main deities. 

After his experiences in other traditions, Buckland determined to make Seax-Wicca more open and democratic.  There are no degree structure and no oath of secrecy, and to alleviate any possibility of the abuse of power, the priesthood is chosen democratically by the coven members.  Priests and priestesses are elected annually to serve for a year and a day only, after which new leaders may be elected.  It is possible however for leaders to continue for more than one term, if acknowledged by the coven as being good leaders.  The coven can be lead by either a priest or priestess, or by both acting together, in which case neither is regarded superior to the other. 

In the Saxon tradition, non-initiates, or cowans, are referred to as Theows (pronounced thoe) and are permitted to attend ritual meetings by invitation.  A neophyte training to enter a coven is known as a Ceorl (pronounced cawl), and once initiated becomes a Gesith.  As there is no degree structure for further advancement all Saxon Wiccans are known as Gesiths.  Once Gesith has been attained, he or she may break away and form a new coven, or start their own coven by doing a simple self-dedication rite before initiating others to join them.  The Book of Shadows is called The Tree, and is usually bound in a green cover. 

Buckland was known as the Faeder, or Founder/Father of Seax-Wica and for many years ran a correspondence course for the tradition, believing that individuals unable to join or contact a coven should not be excluded.  As a result, Seax-Wica is now a worldwide tradition with covens operating in such places as Japan, Russia, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and all across England, Europe and the United States.  In 1993 at Lughnasadh, Buckland decided to retire from active participation in the Craft, and handed the leadership of the tradition on to an ex-student, Michael B. Smith.  As the new leader, Smith has re-started the tradition’s correspondence course, which is available from Crowhaven House, P.O. Box 4202, New York, NY 10163.


Shamanism is a religion that blends Witchcraft with the magical beliefs of African and Native American tribal societies.  Rituals and practices are designed to connect individuals to the divine through contact with the spirit world.  Through communication with the spirits, the Shaman can work acts of healing, divination, and magic - revealing by way of vision, poetry, and myth the deeper reaches of the human spirit. 

According to archaeological and ethnological evidence, shamanism has been practiced for some 20,000 to 30,000 years.  It has been found all over the world including remote parts of the Americas, Siberia, Asia, Australia, Northern Europe and Africa.  Selena Fox founded the modern Wiccan style of shamanism under the banner of Circle Sanctuary, which is an interfaith blend of Wicca made up from cross-cultural shamanic practices and transpersonal psychology. 

To achieve or induce the required mental state of consciousness to perform his or her work, drumming, chanting, and the use of rattles are normally employed.  However shamanism is also one of the few Wicca traditions to accept and permit the use of hallucinogens to achieve this altered state.  Once achieved the primary focus of the shaman is to heal mentally, emotionally, and physically.  To do this the shaman must first have acquired a guardian spirit, the source of his spiritual power.  Guardian spirits may appear to the shaman in differing guises such as power animals, tutelary spirits, totemic animals, or familiars. 

The most common method of discovering and connecting with the guardian spirit is a solitary all night vigil outside, preferably in some quiet remote place.  The guardian spirit will usually manifest itself as an animal, bird, fish, or reptile, but can also appear in human form.  It is both beneficent and beneficial and will bring to the shaman the power of an entire species.  Once it has appeared the shaman invites the spirit into his own body where it protects him from illness and unfriendly forces while he or she is in an altered state.  Healing, divination and other works of magic can now be performed. 

Pagan and Wiccan shamanism fosters a close connection with earth issues, and plays a leading role in the environmental and ecological interests of many individuals.  It also plays a significant role in the creation of alternative healing therapies especially tailored to Pagan and Wiccan spirituality.

Solitary Witchcraft

Solitary practitioners are individuals preferring to work in private rather than within the confines of a group or coven.  Some practice and study a particular single tradition, while others, like the Eclectic Wiccan pick, choose and blend different traditions.  Wicca with its diverse number of traditions works well with this sort of practice, and Solitary working can be as fulfilling as working in a group setting.  Because of its solitary nature and without clear guidance, it does involve a deal of self-study and determination to achieve results.  Solitary Wiccans often undertake a ritual of self-initiation to dedicate themselves to the Goddess and God.  A good course of study for Solitary Witchcraft would be the works and books of Scott Cunningham, who perhaps more than anyone opened up Wicca to solitary practice during the 1980's.


Strega is the Italian word for a witch, a practitioner of the Italian-American traditions of witchcraft called Stregheria.  Stregheria is the Italian word for the religion of Witches, and Sregoneria the magickal practice of Witches.  Italian Witchcraft is one of the oldest forms of European Witchcraft that can be documented through historical and literary references, and is perhaps second only to Greek Witchcraft, which was first mentioned by Homer and Hesiod (circa - eighth century B.C.).  Some of the earliest historical references to Italian Witches date from around 30 B.C., in the writings of the Roman poet Horace. 

Although his depiction of Witches is less than kind, Horace ascribes to them the power to draw down the moon from the sky.  He also notes that they worshiped Diana and Proserpina in secret ceremonies at night, and speaks of a Witches book of incantations called the “Libros Carminum”, the Book of Charms.  Other writers of this era such as Ovid and Lucan also note the worship of Hecate, Proserpina, and Diana by Italian Witches. 

Italian Witchcraft differs from region to region.  Those traditions originating in the north tend to be rooted in the ancient Erruscan religion.  Those in central Italy often contain a mixture of medieval magick with Italic Paganism, while those in southern Italy retain the more rural forms of Witchcraft.  Sicilian Witchcraft is probably one of the least altered forms of original Witchcraft due to its relatively insular nature as an island. 

One of the most influential writers on Italian Witchcraft was Charles G. Leland, his book “Aradia: Gospel of the Witches” is one of the most influential works to affect and influence modern day Wicca and Witchcraft.  Both Gerald Gardner and Doreen Valiente were greatly influenced by his teachings and in time the Gardnerian tradition took on many elements of Italian Witchcraft.  The famous “Charge of the Goddess” written by Doreen was clearly inspired by his work.  Other aspects include:  The full moon gatherings, worship of the goddess and god consort, cakes and wine after rituals and celebrations, and Ritual nudity. 

One of the early proponents of Italian witchcraft in America was Dr. Leo Louis Martello, who on the 26th of September 1951 was initiated into his cousin’s secret Sicilian coven.  His initiation involved a blood-letting oath never to reveal the secrets of the coven, its members or any of their secret teachings.  Later together with Lori Bruno another hereditary witch, they founded the Trinacrian Rose one of the first Italian-American covens in the United States.

The Sylvan Tradition 

The Sylvan tradition began in the 1970’s in Northern California and incorporates some of the working practices of the Feri Wicca tradition formed by Victor and Cora Anderson.  This tradition is a magic working earth-based tradition that considers Witchcraft not as a religion with rules and doctrines, but as a Craft tradition and way of life.  It celebrates diverse viewpoints and believes in no set dogma, but has a working approach that meets its member’s needs.  

The tradition teaches that the earth is sacred in itself, and as such its members generally do not exorcise or banish negative energy from an area before raising a Circle, nor do they feel a need to guard it.  Most of the traditions members believe that no dark or negative energy can coexist in the circle with the elements, Goddess, God and fey, whom they invite into the circle as the ritual begins.  Similarly because the elements can be found in all directions, they do not link the elements to directions.  Likewise, as they believe the elements are already present, they do not invoke them during ritual but rather call them to join the circle and aid its members.  During ritual they work with the fey, including the elementals and devas, in part because everything is asked to aid the magick. 

The tradition is named Sylvan meaning “of the forest”, to honour the connection to all seen and unseen forest things including trees, which the tradition considers the most balanced beings in nature.  The forest is also the home of the fey (the middle agents between members and Nature) who help all stay in harmony with Nature.  Part of the tradition is consideration for the earth. 

Though some Sylvan rites are repeated, most are created by members in honor of a particular sabbat or esbat, or to achieve a particular magical goal.  During ritual, and in contrast with many traditional Wiccan rituals, the High Priestess or Priest cuts the circle widdershins to acknowledge existing chaos and to take the circle out of mundane time and space transporting it and its participants into magical space.

Vodoun or Voodoo

Vodoun or Voodoo is a blending of worship to the traditional Catholic saints and the Gods (loas) of Africa, for example a Vodoun practitioner could be preying for the intercession of St. Patrick and really be calling on their serpent God, Danbhalah-Wedo.  Vodoun worshippers believe that the work of the loas appears in every facet of daily life and that pleasing the loas will gain the faithful health, wealth and spiritual contentment.  The loas speak to their devotees through spirit possession, but only during ceremonies when they are called upon to protect, punish or confer skills such as prophesy, curing illness, exorcising spirits, giving counsel, assisting in rituals and take sacrificial offerings.  The priest (a houngan) or priestess (a mambo) acts as an intermediary to summon the loa, and helps the loa to depart when his or her business is finished.  Magic for both good and bad purposes is an integral part of Vodoun, bad is considered merely the mirror image of good, and the magic of the loas is therefore used to affect both.

The Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA)

WLPA is an international educational organization founded in 1986 by Laurie Cabot and Christine Dumas to protest the filming of John Updike’s novel, The Witches of Eastwick.  The novel is a story about three witches and their involvement with the devil, which Cabot and Dumas considered a gross misrepresentation of the Craft.  WLPA networks with other major groups of witches from all around the world, and with the American Civil Liberties Union in regard to religious freedom in efforts to end prejudice and bigotry against Witches and Witchcraft.  WLPA does not handle individual discrimination cases.






Encyclopedia of Wicca & Witchcraft  - By Raven Grimassi

An ABC of Witchcraft Past and Present  - By Doreen Valiente.

Understanding Chaos Magic  - By Jaq D. Hawkins

  The Encyclopedia of Witches &Witchcraft  - By Rosemary Ellen Guiley.

Witta, An Irish Pagan Tradition - By Edain McCoy


To many to mention  :-)

First published 02 September 2007  ©  George Knowles

Best Wishes and Blessed Be


Site Contents - Links to all Pages


Home Page


A Universal Message:


Let there be peace in the world  -   Where have all the flowers gone?


About me:

My Personal PageMy Place in England / My Family Tree (Ancestry)


Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 Doreen Valiente Witch” (A Book Review) /   


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansUnicornWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat /  Rats /  Unicorn




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





A "Who's Who" of Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Pagan Pioneers:  Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /   Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda MetteyyaAllan Kardec (Spiritism) /  Alphonsus de SpinaAmber KAnn Moura /  Anna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman SpareBalthasar Bekker /  Biddy EarlyBarbara Vickers /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristopher PenczakChristina Oakley Harrington Cornelius Loos /  Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-NowickiDonald Michael Kraig Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edain McCoy /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne /   Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Heinrich KramerIsaac Bonewits Israel RegardieIvo Domínguez Jr. /  Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick /  James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJean Bodin Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer  / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /   Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim  -  the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John Score /  Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" /   Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceLodovico Maria Sinistrari Ludwig LavaterMadeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMichael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" /  Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” /  Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMartin Antoine Del Rio Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillOlivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis /  Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPaul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school /  Peter Binsfeld /  Philip HeseltonRaven GrimassiRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Richard BaxterRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Rossell Hope Robbins /   Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWalter Ernest ButlerWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



While I have taken due care and diligence to credit all sources where possible, this website may contain copyrighted material which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner.  My use of making such material available here is done so in my efforts to advance our understanding of religious discrimination, the environmental and social justice issues etc.   If you wish to use copyrighted material from this website for purposes of your own then you must obtain permission from the relevant copyright owner yourself.

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